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People's Republic of China (CHINA)
The People's Republic of China

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    The People's Republic of China is located east Asia, Pacific Ocean West bank. The on land and North Korea, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Laos, Nepal, the Sikkim, Bhutan, Burma, Vietnam are the neighbour, separates country and so on, and see to Japan, South Korea, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia faces one another.

Geography Returns to the page head

    The area 9.6 million square kilometers, are the Asian territory area biggest countries, in the world multitudinous country, is only inferior to Russia and Canada, occupies the world third. North the Chinese territory Mohe River by the northern Heilongjiang middle of a river, south to Nansha Islands' zengmu reef, the north and south is distanced 5,500 kilometers; East gets up Heilongjiang and Wusuli River convergence place. West to the Pamirs, the thing is distanced 5,200 kilometers. Land boundary long approximately 22,800 kilometers. Mainland China eastern part and south borders on Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea and the South China Sea. Sea area area approximately 4.73 million square kilometers. Islands 5,400, the islands total area is 38,700 square kilometers. China sea waterfront total length 32,000 kilometers, continental sea waterfront 18,000 kilometers, islands coastline 14,000 kilometers.

   West the Chinese topography Gao Dongdi assumes the steps and ladders shape to drop by the level. The highest level of steps and ladders are the Qinghai-Tibet Plain, above the average elevation 4,000 meters, is known as "the roof of the world". The second level of steps and ladders by inner Mongolian plain, the loess plateau, the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and the Tarim basin, accurate Ge you the basin, the sichuan pendi constitute, average elevation 1,000 meters to 2,000 meters. From Daxinanling, Mount Taihang, Wushan and the snowy peak piedmont to the east to the coastline, the topography drop to the elevation 500 to 1,000 meters for the third level of steps and ladders. The fourth level of steps and ladders are the Chinese continental shelf shallow sea area, the water depth equally not to 200 meters. The national each kind of terrain percentage is: The mountainous region accounts for 33%, the plateau accounts for 26%, the knoll accounts for 10%, the basin accounts for 19%, the plain accounts for 12%.

Chinese landform 晕渲 chart

    Southwest is famous "the roof of the world" - Qinghai-Tibet Plain, the edge is the world biggest sierra - Himalaya Mountains, Mount Everest is the world first peak, the elevation 8,848 meters. Within the boundaries also has the Altay, Tianshan, Kunlun Mountain, Daxinanling, Changbaishang mountain and so on the main sierra; Has Qinghai and Xizang, the loess, Yunnan and Kweichow, the Inner Mongolian four big plateaus; Northeast, North China, middle and lower reaches Yangtze River and so on three great plains. Yangtze River is the Chinese first river, the world third river, the span 6,300 kilometers. The Beijing Hangzhou canal long 1,801 kilometers, are in the world the longest canal. The offshore islands are more, the Island of Taiwan is the biggest islands, next is Hainan Island. A bigger lake has Poyang Lake, Dongting Lake, Tai Lake and so on. Lake Qinghai is biggest salty Shui Hu.

Chinese satellite picture

Climate Returns to the page head

    The weather pattern complex is diverse, the majority of areas are located the North temperate zone and the subtropics, is the continental monsoon climatic region. The majority of local four seasons are distinct, winter cold Xia Re. Because vast in territory, terrain complex, the elevation difference is disparate, thus has the many and varied weather pattern. Our country temperate zone by the southing north is in turn the tropics, the subtropics, warm belt, center temperate zone, cold warm belt, in addition also has a Qinghai-Tibet Plain vertical temperate zone.

    The Chinese most north Heilongjiang Province Mohe River area, is located the north latitude 53° by the north, is the cold temperate climate, but most south Hainan Province zengmu reef is apart from the equator only to have 400 kilometers, is the equatorial climate, the north and south each place temperature difference is extremely disparate. Winter, Chinese general areas great distance ice-bound, Wan Lixue flutters, Mohe River area in January average temperature -30 ?about, but the this time Hainan Sanya's average temperature actually surpasses 20 ? Our country winter temperature characteristic is the majority of local winter cold, the north and south temperature difference is big. Summer, as a result of this time sunlight perpendicular incidence in Northern Hemisphere, north the daytime quite is long, the light which obtains hotly differs with the south slightly, therefore, besides the topography specially high Qinghai-Tibet Plain, the national universal high temperature, the north and south temperature difference is not big.

    The Chinese majority of areas the sea warm wet air current influence, the precipitation quite are been rich, but the precipitation has the local distribution and the time assignment non-uniformity. Eastern part many, west few, to northwest gradually decreases by the southeast, and, concentrates in the summer, south rainy season long, concentrates in 5-10 month, north the rainy season is short, concentrates in July, in August. The precipitation has the year many, has year few, the year border change is very big.

    The Chinese major part area is situated at the Tropic of Cancer by the north, the winter sun incidence angle slightly, sunshine time short, obtains sunlight heat less, moreover are less toward North Vietnam; Summer sunlight perpendicular incidence in Northern Hemisphere, thus obtains the light hot generally increases, also the sunshine time is long.

Resources Returns to the page head

    The nation altogether has the cultivated area 130.04 million hectares, the open land area 108 million hectares, the forestry uses the area 263.29 million hectares, the lawn area 400 million hectares, the wooded area 158.94 million hectares, forest cover rate to reach 16.55%, the forest always stores up the quantity 12.49 billion cubic meters.

    The water resources total quantity 2686800000000 cubic meters, the hydro-electric resources ?reserves 676 million kilowatts, potential quantity is 379 million kilowatts.

    Mineral resource type many, distributed broad, the reserves is big. The coal, the petroleum, the iron, the copper, the aluminum, the tungsten and so on the main mineral deposit occupies the world front row.

Political area Returns to the page head

    China implements the administrative area delimits, basically is the province, the city (county), the township (town) three level of organicity, upper level of leaders next level. Until for 2002 year's end, altogether has the provincial level unit to altogether have 34, 23 provinces, 4 municipalities, 5 autonomous regions, 2 special administrative regions. The level administrative area delimits unit 332, 275 for place level city. County level administrative area delimits unit 2,860, county level city 381, municipal district 830. Altogether has 20,606 towns, 18,593 townships, ethnic township 1,167. The city altogether has subdistrict office 5,575.
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Center state policy area chart

History Returns to the page head

    The Chinese history culture is glorious, is one of world ancient nations. Has more than 5,000 years history, has experienced the primitive society, the slave society, starts from 475 B.C. Warring States time to enter the feudal society. After in 1840 the Opium War gradually degenerated into the semifeudal and semicolonial country. In 1911 Sun Yat-Sen led 1911 Revolution, has overthrown the feudal monarchy at one fell swoop. In 1919 "54 movements" symbolized the New Democratic Revolution stage start. In 1921 the Communist Party of China had been established, has established the People's Republic of China to 1949 October 1. National Day is on October 1.
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Population Returns to the page head

    In 2005 the population 1.3 billion, accounts for the world population 6.4 billion 1/5, is in the world population most countries. Among them, the urban population 502.12 million people, account for 37.7%; The rural population 782.41 million people, account for 62.3%. Whole year only increases the population 8.26 million people, the natural rate of growth is 6.95 ? The population density is 130 person of/square kilometers. Altogether has 56 nationalities, the Han Nationality accounts for the national population 92%. General Chinese. The freedom of religious belief, generally believes in Buddhism, the Taoism, the Islamism, Christianity and so on.
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Economy Returns to the page head

    The industrial development is rapid. Has been through repeatedly for more than 50 years the constructions, already was has the quite complete industrial system and the national economic system preliminary prosperous socialist countries. The industry class is complete, the system integrity, has each kind of modernized the industry. The main department has mining, the metallurgy, the electric power, the electron, the automobile, the spinning and weaving, the machine manufacture, the chemical industry, the light industry and so on. The agriculture occupies the dominant position in the national economy. The posts and telecommunications correspondence industry development is rapid. In 2003, our country increases the telephone subscriber1.12 hundred million households, the user total has amounted to 5.32 hundred million households, occupies the world first place. Fixed telephone increases 4,900 ten thousand households, amounts to 2.63 hundred million households; The mobile phone increases 6,300 ten thousand households, amounts to 2.69 hundred million households. The fixed telephone master line popular rate and the mobile phone popular rate respectively reaches 20.5% and 20.8%, makes the telephone the administrative village proportion to reach 89.2%.

    In 2003 the GDP 11669.4 billion Yuan, are equal to 1400 billion US dollars, average per person 1,090 US dollars, year economic growth rate about 8%. In 2004 GDP amounts to 13651.5 billion Yuan, grew 9.5% compared to the last year. In 2004 China official announces gross national product 1551.3 billion US dollars Whole year the grain ultimate output amounts to 469.5 billion kilograms, increased production 38.8 billion kilograms compared to the last year, grew 9.0%; Whole year the cities inhabitant average per person may control receives 942.2 billion Yuan, actual grew 7.7% compared to the last year, the farmer average per person net income amounts to 293.6 billion Yuan, actually grew 6.8%.

    Mainly exports the petroleum, the coal, the grain, the vegetable oil, the cotton fabric and each industry product and so on. Main import machinery transport vehicle, steel products, chemical fertilizer, rubber, paper, chemical product and so on. In 2003 foreign trade total amount approximately 851.21 billion US dollars, grows 37.1%. China's rises in world trade place from 2002 fifth to fourth. In 2004, the China imports and exports total achieved 1154.7 billion US dollars, grew 35. 7% compared to the last year, became the world third big trade country. China exports total 593.4 billion US dollars, grows 35. 4%, imports total 561.4 billion US dollars, grows 36%, whole year the trade surplus is 32 billion US dollars, expanded 6.5 billion US dollars compared to the last year. Whole year actual use foreign merchant direct investment 60.6 billion US dollars, grow 13. 3%. To 2004 year's end, the Chinese country foreign exchange reserve is 609.9 billion US dollars, increased 206.7 billion US dollars compared to the last year.

In 2006 China GDP is over US$2,500 billion.
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   In 2004 the nation respectively saves the GDP place

   In 2004 national various cities average per person GDP place

   The current money is a Renminbi.

Military Returns to the page head

Military expenses expenditure
    In 2004 for the defense budget is 26 billion US dollars, the military expenses expenditure is 45 billion US dollars, accounts for the total output value 3%, accounts for the world military expenses total amount 5%, world 4th.

    National defense system
       The People's Republic of China armed forces' leading body is the Central Military Committee, it on the one hand is the Communist Party of China Central Committee's military leader institution, on the other hand also is the People's Republic of China state institution constituent. Party's Central Military Committee is responsible for the party and the national highest military decision-making and the military command, according to party's route, policy, policy and national security and development need, definite country military strategy, leadership and organization national defense and army construction; It is the Chinese People's Liberation Army's commander-in-chief institution, its component member decided by the Communist Party of China Central Committee. The national Central Military Committee implements to the nation armed forces' leadership, by president, vice-president, committee member is composed, implements president the responsibility system; President elects the production by the National People's Congress, is responsible for National People's Congress and its the standing committee; Other members nominate the decision by National People's Congress or its standing committee according to president; The tenure in office and each session of National People's Congress tenure in office is same.
    All levels of people's armed forces committee is the specialized agency which the populace arms constructs, its primary mission is the research implements each policy, the policy and the instruction which the Central Party Committee, the State Council, the Central Military Committee concerned militiamen constructs; According to the higher authority prefectural party committee and military organ's written comment, unifies this local situation, the research solves the militiaman to work the major issue; The research implementation concerned militiaman mobilizes and is transferred to civilian occupation, the retired personnel places the work the policy, the policy.
    People's Republic of China Department of Defense is State Council's military branch, the leadership and the management national defense development enterprise; Every must by the government responsible military work, make the corresponding decision after the State Council again implements through Department of Defense or by Department of Defense's name organization, and by the general staff, the general political department, General Logistics Department separately handles. Department of Defense while accepts which the State Council leads, also accepts the Central Military Committee the leadership.
    Under the general staff is the Central Military Committee leads is responsible to organize the armed forces construction and the operational control military leader institution.
    Under the general political department is the Central Military Committee leads is responsible for the army political work the leading body.
    Under General Logistics Department is the Central Military Committee leads is responsible for the army rear service work the leading body.

    The People's Republic of China armed forces by the Chinese People's Liberation Army, the Chinese people armed police army and the militiaman three parts are composed. People's Liberation Army is armed forces' main constituent; The armed police is the armed force which shoulders the domestic tasks for maintenance of security; The militiaman is People's Liberation Army's assistants and the reserve strength.

    The implementation compulsory military service system unifies the military service system for the main body soldier performing obligatory service and the volunteer soldier which, the militiaman and the reserve duty unifies. The active duty soldier is composed by the soldier performing obligatory service and the volunteer soldier, the army length of service is 3 years, the sea, the spatial military uniform throws the deadline is 4 years, army may the extended active duty l 12 years, the sea, the air force be possible the extended active duty 1 year. Volunteer soldier including sergeant and first sergeant, its length of service after service of 5 years active duty, from changes date of the volunteer soldier to take again in 8112. The military officer serves the maximum age respectively is: Row of level 30 year old, continually level 35 year old, camp level 40 year old, group level 45 year old, teacher level 50 year old, army corps level 55 year old, greater military area deputy 63 year old, military region regular duty 65 years old.
    The military officer military rank is 3 and so on 10 levels. High-ranking military officer minute general, center, major general, field grade officer minute senior colonel, colonel, lieutenant colonel, major, company officer minute captain, first lieutenant, second lieutenant. The civilian cadre is a cadre which the army establishment decides 额内 does not award the military rank, is the national defense and the army construction important strength, is the national cadre troop's important constituent, changes the civilian cadre by the active duty officer to retain one's military status.

    The China armed forces total is 2.5 million people. The Chinese People's Liberation Army total military strength approximately is 2.225 million people, army 1.6 million people, the navy 255,000 people, the air force 400,000 people, are the world hugest armies. Looked from its deployment primary armament system quantity that, China has in the world one of scale biggest military forces. But, Chinese huge arsenal no matter from the service life or from the technical level said already extremely was all obsolete. Many from the 50's, the 60's and the 70's starts the armament system which serves until now also during the use, and these armament systems use all or for the 50's the technology which introduces from Soviet Union. China is realizing the conventional military force modernization, the modern weapon starts to join active duty, but is opposite to the obsolete armed forces' overall scale says, its speed is quite low. After future ten years development, after all old style weapons all completely retire, China's conventional military force scale possibly will be able to have large scale reducing.

The army has 1.6 million people, the ground forces is divided into 7 military regions and 27 military sub-regions. 7 greater military areas interior bureau 21 group armies, each group army is having the about 60,000 people. Under these group armies commands 44 infantry divisions, 13 infantry brigades, 10 armored divisions, 12 armored brigades, 5 artilleries teachers, 20 artilleries travel, 7 helicopters groups. In addition also has 5 infantry divisions, 2 infantry brigades, 1 armored brigade, 1 artillery teacher, 3 artilleries travel, 3 anti-aircraft anti-aircrafts artillery travel is the independent unit, does not subordinate to any group army. Moreover also has 3 airborne to be mobile belongs to controls to the People's Liberation Army air force.
    Also has many reserve duties army and the paramilitary forces, some certainly not directly accept People's Liberation Army the direction. The People's Liberation Army reserve duty army has the about 1.2 million people, arranges is 50 infantry divisions, the artillery teacher and 防空? Moreover, approximately some 1.1 million people in the people's armed forces police army service, this army including the internal affairs security army and the frontier forces, have the about 45 military strength. According to the Chinese army modernization and the structure adjustment plan, some active duty armies will transform into the reserve duty, therefore the estimate future the reserve duty army and armed police's scale will be able to expand.

Since 1994, the Chinese army has carried on a series of strategic transformation. Most noticeable is in the history most large-scale sets up the quick reaction force and the enhancement urgent disposition army's ability. Other key projects are strengthen the airborne troops to construct, the increase group army mobility and armoured. Nearly each group army compounds a Russia type establishment the tank division (equipment to have 322 tanks), in order to further strengthens the tank division the high-speed maneuverability, in each tank division Canada has arranged a tank transport group.

The People's Liberation Army army also strengthened the air support ability. After 90's, above in the teacher level exercise, bombing the important component which the attack airplane firepower the combat teamwork is develops teaches. After 1993, provides the topographical identification radar to annihilate the bang -7, installs the omnidirectional radar warning system strong 5C, annihilates 8 II to change the attack airplane frequent participation to train and to exercise, army's minimum altitude/low altitude (100-500 meter) the attack capability multiplies. At the same time, 500 pounds laser guided bomb also puts into the use, sharpened the bombing on pinpoint ability.

In view of possibly comes from the airborne attack, from 1992, China has successively introduced "2s6m", "Tor-m1", "s-300pmu1", "s-300v" and so on the air defense missile system, passes through repeatedly tests and the exercise operation proof, the new generation of ground-to-air missile system total war strength achieves even the leading world advanced level. Among them, 2s6m (Tunguska) still did not have the match in the western nation; But the s-300v performance surpasses Taiwan to purchase "the patriot" pac2+, is entire air zone air defense/antimissile weapons system which one kind reliable also is worth trusting. In addition, China with the Russia side cooperative production, is developing the new generation of Red Flag series air defense missile system.

The army modernization another important action is establishes the Army aviation forces, the strengthening quick reaction capability. The 90's key group armies exercise, has the Army aviation forces or the air force transportation group's helicopter participation. Since 1980, China successively has spent 1.2 billion US dollars, imported approximately 150 helicopters, including "black hawk", "aerospatiale 341/342 gazelle" and so on. At the same time, to 1980, but also has produced 545 straight -5 (rice -4), but also has about 100 straight -9, 20 straight -8 successively equips the key group army.

    Estimated China cuts off to 2000 tank quantity is approximately 7, 000.
    59 types: Approximately 5,500, the Soviet Made T - 54 tanks imitations, later period have made the improvement.
    62 types: Is 59 -like reductions.
    63 types: Comes from Soviet Union's PT - 76 alligator tanks development
    69 types: Approximately 200;
    79 types: Approximately 500
    88B: Above 500;
    98 types: Approximately 500;

The mainland naval strength by the naval vessel army, the submarine force, the air unit, marine corps, the shore defense force army, the service troops and so on is composed, has each naval vessel to amount to 2,285 (including 94 submarines), each kind of airplane 749, 2 marine corps brigades and 10 seacoasts missiles group, the total military strength is 345,179 people, arranges has North Sea, East China Sea and the South China Sea three fleets.

    The North Sea fleet headquarters are located the Shandong Qingdao, is responsible to have jurisdiction faces the boundary the Yalu River mouth to the Jiangsu Province Lienyungang's region; The East China Sea Fleet headquarters are located the Zhejiang Ningbo, is responsible to have jurisdiction from the Jiangsu Province Lienyungang to the Fujian Shao's peaceful region; The South China Sea fleet headquarters are located the Guangdong Zhanjiang, is responsible to have jurisdiction from Fujian Shao arrives safely the Chinse and Vietnamese boundary Beilun River mouth region.

    At present the mainland navy's main combat ship includes: 2 "modern age" level, 2 "travel sea" level, 2 "travel Shanghai" level and 15 "Lyuda" level guided-missile destroyer; 10 "river health" level and 31 "rivers and lakes" level guided missile escort ship; 1 "summer" level ballistic missile nuclear-powered submarine and 5 "Chinese" level attack nuclear-powered submarine; 4 "Kilo" the level, 2 "Song" the level, 10 "bright" the level, 8 "are bright" level advanced version, 1 C level, 1 R level advanced version, 61 R level and so on the nearly 90 conventional submarines; 25 tank landing ships. In addition also has 2 "Fuqing" the level and 3 "greatly transports" the level comprehensive supplies ship; 3 "big river" level and 1 "east Shanghai" level submarine rescue ship; In 1 water weapon experiment depot ship; 1 "Zheng He" level and 1 "world prosperous" level training ship; 4 "far look" the level surveying ship; 3 informations ships; Dozens of oceanography investigation ship and so on.

Has ordered 2 modern levels guided-missile destroyer and 6 Kilo levels nuclear-armed missiles submarine to Russia.

Deployment in North Sea fleet: "Travel Shanghai" the level guided-missile destroyer, "the summer" the level ballistic missile nuclear-powered submarine, 5 "the Chinese" the level attack nuclear-powered submarine, its main strategic target is took the counter- system and defends country's the and so on America, date, Han threat in force, also is the Chinese navy nucleus frightens anti- and the retaliation strategic army
Deployment in East China Sea Fleet: But buys from Russia "the modern age" the level guided-missile destroyer and "Kilo" the level convention submarine, in addition deployed in Wuhu's Soviet -27 advanced fighter aircraft and the deployment in places the such as Fujian, Jiangxi M race ultra-long-range missile army, its main strategic target is the military force receives, also is frightens anti- US to ford person Taiwan sea to conflict as well as to cope with the USA navy aircraft carrier combat team the sharp weapon
Deployment in South China Sea fleet: Domestically produced 170, the 168th guided-missile destroyer, "the travel sea" the level guided-missile destroyer, 2 "Song" the level convention submarine and the Marine Corps, deployed in addition in Guangdong's Soviet -27 fighter aircraft, its main strategic goal is maintains the South China Sea area the sovereignty and the sea economic, deals with the South China Sea area the military conflict.

But amphibious, the rear service, and naval vessel and so on science investigation actually is the mainland navy develops the open sea combat important composition military strength, because to the synthesis rear service military supplies ability is relating the open sea operational capacity maintenance from the geography hydrology environment investigation. Therefore, is positive from the mainland navy entire constructs East China Sea and the South China Sea two fleets motions looked, both banks question and the South China Sea sovereignty actually are the Chinese present stage most important strategic target, but from positively develops the large-scale combat and the rear service naval vessel plans looked that, will break through the Pacific Ocean first and the second island chain blockade will be the mainland navy in 2,020 to 2050 center, forward strategic item.

    In 2006, 70 submarines: 8 nuclear-powered submarines. 5 "Chinese" level 091 attacks nuclear-powered submarines, 1 "summer" level 092 ballistic missiles nuclear-powered submarine, 2 093 "business" level missile attack nuclear-powered submarine. 4 "Kilo" the level, 2 "Song" the level, 10 "bright" the level, 8 "are bright" conventional submarine and so on level advanced version, 1 C level, 1 R level advanced version, 61 R level.
        China got up from the 60's begins to start an item including many firewood electromotive forces submarine and some nuclear-powered submarine huge submarine construction plan, this plan gradually stopped down in the end of the 80's. Many now already transferred the reserve duty in that time construction firewood electromotive force submarine. Recently period of time, the new submarine construction and the purchase started crowdedly to get up. In the near future, China's submarine flotilla will be able to change the scale will be smaller, but more modernized.
        In its historical majority time, the Chinese People's Liberation Army navy's submarine flotilla "Romeo" the level submarine is composed by the small maritime shore patrol submarine as well as domestically produced model Soviet Union. Originally lacked the antisubmarine warfare ability "Romeo" the level (033) now already to surmount by China's neighboring country subordinates' bureau any kind of asw system. Altogether made 73 Romeo level submarine from 1962 to 1987 December for the Chinese navy, including about 38 at present still to maintain the active duty condition, although they merely went to sea every year several days time. Moreover has 30 conditions different submarines to be at the reserve duty condition. Some Romeo level submarine reequips for carries six "the hawk to strike" (C - 801) the anti-ship missile, but must float to the surface launch.
         In the 70's, China started the domestic product to design the submarine the mass construction plan. First kind is "is bright" the level (035), produced in 1971 to 1979 between, and restored the production once more in 1987. Although Ming Ji structure renewal, but good very are not certainly more than in operational capacity aspect Ming Ji its senior.
        The afterwards Song level (039) compared to Ming Lueda, uses the streamline outer covering to obtain well reduces chirp the performance. First Song Jiyu in 1999 pays the use, and some two are constructing, later period the model possibly can profit from uses Kilo the level submarine certain designs. "Song"ji the submarine possibly equipped has had submarine firing ability model C - 801 or the C - 802 antis-ship missiles.
        "The Chinese" the level (091) started in 1974 to serve. Similarly, this level of submarine also fully suffered the nuclear reactor question suffering, this level next submarine only then started until 1980 to serve. Fifth continuously only then served with last to 1990. These submarine questions layer on layer (had possibility already to solve), as well as in the construction long-term detention, China or had deployed as if completed in the submarine 5.
        093 "business" level construction based on "Chinese" level construction experience as well as Russian submarine technical personnel's help. This level of submarines performance will be able and Russia a Uygur gram III nuclear-powered submarine which deployed for the first time in 1978 is similar. First 093 starts according to the plan in 2004 to serve.
        The plan makes 4 ~ 6 new 094 ballistic missiles nuclear-powered submarine.
        China has also purchased four "from Russia Kilo the" level convention submarine. 2,002 increases orders eight new "the armour" the level submarine.

Deployment in South China Sea fleet: 30 submarines, Hainan Province City of Sanya 11 submarines: A 093 "business" level, 2 "Kilo" level, 2 "Song"ji, 6 "Ming"ji.
Deployment in North Sea fleet: 20 submarines, "Summer" level ballistic missile nuclear-powered submarine, 5 "Chinese" level attack nuclear-powered submarine.
Deployment in East China Sea Fleet: 20 submarines, A 093 "business" level, 2 "Kilo" level convention submarine.

China's voluntarily development "Song", "the Yuan" and so on the conventional rank submarine already realized "three balls to board the ship", the antiaircraft missile was worth paying attention in particular. The nuclear-powered submarine was another investment black hole, the might astonishing "094" the ultra-long-range missile nuclear-powered submarine already the secret carries on the sea to try many times. It is said that the new nuclear-powered submarine must construct 10, 093 and 094 proportions are 6: 4, completes such plan, will be China forms in the true significance the second nucleus attack ability. The surface vessel aspect, "Shenzhen" the level destroyer already paid the use, was constructing on the berth also has 4 destroyers, 3 or 4 escort ships, 3 or 4 submarines (other also had at least 2 newest nuclear-powered submarines). In the service destroyer, the escort ship already had surpassed 20 reequipment to finish, had the enormous enhancement in the electronic warfare ability aspect.

       Surface battleship
    Since 1972, Chinese water surface combat ship number and gross tons by stable speed rise. This kind of rise estimate also again will continue five years, after but possibly will drop, if will not have the renewal the naval construction and the purchase plan puts into practice. The Chinese navy newest expansion of armaments is the domestic product 170 antiaircraft missiles destroyer, the displacement 8,000 tons Two Russia constructs "the modern age" the level destroyer. These warships were the Chinese navy has operated are biggest, most have the might the warship, first pays the use in February, 2000. 8 SS - N which these warships most make which one awe the weapon are it carry - 22 "the date ? the supersonic sea-skimming anti-ship missile. The modern level also equips has SA - N - 7 "the gadfly" the antiaircraft missile, they can give China the navy limited marine anti-air capability. So far, China also only has the short distance the legal system or the domestically produced model antiaircraft missile.

        China constructs the newest destroyer is 6,000 tons "the travel ocean" the level. This level first year's end serves in 1999.
       China also is moving other two big ranks 18 destroyers. 4,200 tons "travel Shanghai" the level is "the travel sea" the level prototype, altogether has constructed 2, although they are ordered in 1985, but separately and in 1996 only then served in 1994 (construction plan to postpone in order to completed the Thai navy escort ship order form). The travel Shanghai level has equipped eight C - 802 antis-ship missiles; A domestic product "the sidewinder" the antiaircraft missile discharger, its prototype is France provides in the 80's; Antisubmarine torpedo and rocket launcher; As well as many artillery. They also can carry two Harbin the straight nine helicopters, uses in to carry out anti-submarine and the anti-ship duty.
        Quantity biggest level of destroyers are 16 "Lyuda" the I/II/III level (3,679 ~ 3,730 tons). These warship equipments has 6 C - 201 antis-ship missiles; Antisubmarine torpedo and rocket; As well as heavy artillery. The Lyuda II level has substituted for the rear part 130 millimeters turrets and 37 millimeters turrets with the helicopter deck and the hangar. An only Lyuda III level substitutes for the performance worse C - 201 missiles with the C - 801 missiles. This level of center two reequipped a sidewinder guided missile discharger, other warships also should be able to carry on the reequipment, but the new ship construction is put on the first position.
Other main surface battleships including 37 escort ships. Is same with the destroyer situation, these escort ships mainly are also designed use for to carry on the anti-ship combat, and lacks any significant the self- defense (to guard against air fight and antisubmarine warfare) the ability. Most newly the most effective escort ship is 6 "the river health" the level warship (2,250 tons). Their weaponry and travel Shanghai level similar, but the artillery and the missile number are less. They can carry a porpoise helicopter. In these warship first began the construction in 1990, and some three at present during the construction, and the plan construct 2 again.
    In in addition also has 31 to belong to other one kind of rank the escort ship to serve, namely 1,702 tons "rivers and lakes" level. This level of escort ships divide into four big types: The rivers and lakes I level (active duty 27) carry 4 C - 201 antis-ship missiles, 2 100 millimeter artillery, sur- some different calibers light artillery; An only rivers and lakes II level with went straihgt up the hangar to substitute for the rear part weaponry; 3 rivers and lakes III levels and IV level - 801 or C - 802 has substituted for the C - 201 missiles with 8 C.

        Amphibious battleship
    China's amphibious operational capacity is extremely limited. Cuts off at the beginning of 2000, China only has 49 fully loaded displacements 1,000 ton above the amphibious battleship (other also to have three during construction), 42 displacement below 2,000 tons, moreover does not have to surpass 4,800 tons. Many warships already extremely were obsolete, including 3 in 1942 to 1945 period construction former United States Navy landing craft.
        This fleet scale 小使China any through amphibious lands captures Taiwan the attempt to become is impossible. In addition, does not have the sign to indicate China or the plan constructs a larger-scale army and the commodity transportation ships which the large-scale amphibious assault needs. Similarly, China's small marine corps (about 5,000 people) indicated the amphibious landing operations ability the enhancement is not too possible.

    Supports the supplies ship
    Fuqing level supplies ship:
    Is marine supplies ship which the Chinese navy first independently develops, from the 20th century the end of 70's to the 80's intermediate stages, has successively made 4, the 1st ship served in 1979, but afterwards the 4th ship had sold to Pakistan in 1987, the 3rd ship reequipped a civil oil tanker in 1989, active duty was the 1st ship (ships north 575) and the 2nd ship (eastward shipment 615) two. This ship may load 10,550 tons fuels as well as 400 tons fresh water, the fully loaded displacement 21,750 tons, the span 168.2 meters, the width 21.8 meters, the drinking water 9.4 meters, the main engine is a diesel engine, the single axle advancement, power 15,000 horsepower, speed 18, is loaded with 4 pair of associations 37 millimeters artillery, the crew 180 people.

    "South warehouse" supplies ship:
    Is the Chinese biggest supplies ship (south transports 953), the fully loaded displacement nearly 40,000 tons, originally are the oil tankers which a Ukraine makes, afterwards is bought into in 1993 by China and in the Dalian shipyard reequipment is the supplies ship, in 1996 served, has rationed the expectation combat sea area farther South China Sea fleet. This ship is loaded with massive modernized the military supplies equipment, and can use crosswise and the longitudinal two ways supplies perquisite. Also very much takes to the anchoring zone military supplies, altogether is loaded with 6 cranes, 4 perquisites supply depots and 2 solid stuffs supply depots, can load 9,630 tons fuels. "South the warehouse" the fully loaded displacement 37,000 tons, the span 178.9 meters, the width 25.3 meters, the drinking water 11 meters, the main engine is a diesel engine, the single axle advancement, power 116,000 horsepower, speed 16, portable straight 8 helicopters, crew 125 people.
    In addition, the South China Sea fleet also has 2 greatly to transport the level military transport ship, may deliver 4 small landing crafts, mainly uses in the islands military supplies, is unable to carry on the sea-lift.
    "Nankang" hospital ship:
    In the fine jade sand level military transport ship foundation which about 1980 served changes then comes, to altogether have two. The displacement 2,150 tons, the span 86 meters, the width 13.5 meters, the drinking water 4 meters, the main engine is a diesel engine, the three axle advances, power 3,960 horsepower, speed 16, are loaded with 4 14.5 millimeter machine guns, the crew 59 people, may hold 100 - 130 patients.
    Big river level submarine support ship:
    The 1st ship served in 1976, the fully loaded displacement 11,975 tons, were allowed on 前甲板on to load two lifeguard submarines (DSRV), was allowed to dive into the submarine 600 meters depths, and in 200 meters within depths implementations work. In 舰尾 is equipped with the helicopter platform and the hangar, may load 2 large-scale helicopters. Shipboard does not have the weapon, when necessity may install 3 pair of associations 37 millimeters artillery. The big river level altogether has 3, the 1st ship "Changxing Island" (north rescues 121, namely the south pole inspects establishes J-121 fishing life boat which the Great Wall stands, same year besides station construction, but also has my navy long-distance voyage to train crew goal), the 2nd ship "Chongming island" (east rescues 302), the 3rd ship "the Yongxing island" (south rescues 506), belongs North Sea, East China Sea, the South China Sea fleet.

    Training experiment ship
    "Zheng He" training ship:
    In 1987 served special-purpose training ship, the side number "81", belonged to the Dalian navy naval vessel institute. This ship fully loaded displacement 5,470 tons, the span 119 meters, the width 15.8 meters, the drinking water 4.8 meters, the main engine is two diesel engines, power 7,800 horsepower, speed 15, the endurance 5,000 nautical miles, is loaded with 2 pair of associations 57 millimeters artillery and 2 39 millimeter artillery, but also some 2 5 associations install the rocket deep ball launcher, the crew 170 people, may hold 30 teachers and 200 practices personnel.
    "World prosperous" training ship:
    In 1997 served special-purpose training ship, side number "82". This ship mainly stresses on helicopter marine use aspect training. This ship fully loaded displacement 10,000 tons, the span 120 meters, the width 18 meters, the drinking water 7 meters, main engine power 6,000 horsepower, speed 17.5, may carry 2 helicopters, the crew 170 people, may carry 200 practices personnel, and may install more than 300 containers.
    "Experiments 970" the experimental ship:
    In 1997 served, this ship mainly was to develops the ship-borne equipment - including the missile, the naval gun and the electronic installation carries on the marine test. This ship fully loaded displacement 6,000 tons, the span 132 meters, the width 17.7 meters, the drinking water 7 meters, the main engine is two diesel engines, the two axle advancement, the power is unclear, speed 20, crew 80 people.

        In brief, the navy has obtained the majority of shares which China the military expenses disbursement increased in recent years. The latent most ambitious navy plan is the purchase or the construction aircraft carrier possibility. Because China cannot obtain is similar to England "the sea kite" the type and so on vertical take off and landing fighter aircraft, if China has obtained the aircraft carrier which uses in actually to deploy, then it very will be possible will be a conventional take off and landing type. At present in the world in the service smallest conventional take off and landing aircraft carrier is Brazilian navy's Minas the Gerais number, the displacement 20,000 tons. But, China possibly can hope uses new Soviet on its aircraft carrier - 27/to annihilate 11, possibly also has annihilates 10 fighter aircrafts, this needs compared to the Brazilian aircraft carrier longer landing deck. At present estimated needs the about 45,000 ~ 50,000 tons levels, thus causes it is in the identical standard with Russia's storehouse this Nie 佐夫 level and France's De Gaulle level aircraft carrier. China's aircraft carrier project sought the help to Russia, China also studies originally belonged to Australia and is towed uses in toward China to demolish "Melbourne" the aircraft carrier. China has also purchased former Soviet Union in May, 2000 "Kiev" the aircraft carrier. Estimated China constructs the aircraft carrier will be able to carry 24 fighter aircrafts, as well as will use in the helicopter which will support. Because China merely has the limited nuclear power technical background in the submarine aspect, this ship possibly can use the conventional power. According to journalistic circles' report, China's first aircraft carrier will serve in 2005, second will serve in 2009, hereafter every three annual meetings will make a new aircraft carrier
      China also plans through purchases the destroyer from Russia to strengthen its surface fleet. Besides two which already purchased "ready-made" the modern level, China planned increases buys other two improvements the modern level, its concrete delivery date was unclear.

Air force
    The Chinese People's Liberation Army air force at present has the about 4,350 airplanes, majority is the battle airplane, cuts off the battle airplane which has to at the beginning of 2000 China includes: 1,900 annihilate 6 and the Mig - 19 (including each kind of use model: Fighter aircraft, reconnaissance aircraft, trainer aircraft); 1,900 annihilate 7 and the Mig - 21 (including each kind of use model: Fighter aircraft, reconnaissance aircraft, trainer aircraft); 222 annihilate 8I/II/III; 55 Soviet - 27SK (annihilates 11); 440 strong 5 (Mig - 19 advanced versions); 307 bang 5 with Il - 28; 142 bang 6 and chart - 16. Perhaps few annihilates bang 7 (approximately 30) and K - 8 also is serving. A model which in these models, occupies the overwhelming majority (to annihilate 6 and to annihilate 7) is in 1972 before starts to serve. Besides 10 Il - 76 transport aircrafts, the Chinese air force's airlift capability only is restricted in the old style Soviet airplane the Chinese patent production or the mapping imitation model, for example transports 5 (peacefully - 2), transports 7 (peacefully - 24), transports 8 (to be peaceful - 12).
    Purchases the su27 series, the su30 series advanced fighter aircraft equipment army to Russia, the SU27 firm organism, the ultra big carrying capacity, the outstanding flight performance, will provide an outstanding air platform to China. Performance advanced domestic product F - 10 also puts into the use. China also notes the airborne early warning technology and the air refueling technology to the long-distance operational importance, thereupon has aimed at the purchase goal Russia's aew aircraft and Israel's fil Kang early-warning aircraft (has not sold under the American pressure for People's Liberation Army). China already 5 bang - 6 bomber aircrafts reequipment was the aircraft-refueling vehicle, may annihilate - 8 for the Chinese air force's main force fighter aircraft II to make air refueling. This act will cause to annihilate - 8 II range to increase to 1,000 kilometers.
    The Chinese first kind of hiding airplane will reequip from SU30, "the duck mouth beast" extremely will be similar with Russia's SU32. This kind of airplane estimated finalizes around 2008. The Chinese originally nearly 6,000 huge airplane groups gradually will compress to 2,500 about, but SU27 series fighter plane proportion will surpass 30%.
    Regarding the establishment strategic air, China has used one kind of intensive plan, is purchases the IL78 aircraft-refueling vehicle, China starts from 2000 to introduce 16-24 one after another. IL78 will make SU27/30 the combat radius to expand a nearly time, achieved 3,000 kilometers, sufficiently will cause the Chinese air force to implement the interdiction combat to the island chain outside.
    China also hoped purchases TU22M3 from Russia is even the TU160 transport aircraft, obtains the manufacture large-scale supersonic plane the ability. Because China is unable the self-made accelerator, the early-warning aircraft and the giant transport plane, the Chinese air force can not but purchase for a long time to Russia.
    In the future ten years, China by will obtain the patent production from Russia the way to make the Soviet - 27 fighter aircrafts, its domestically produced model annihilates 11. The Soviet - 27 output possibly much reach 200, but if China obtained - 27 had many technology advancement compared to Soviet the Soviet - 30 patents productions permission, its total also had the possibility to reduce. China has at present purchased and the plan purchases nearly 100 Soviet - 30MK. In addition, China will be able to continue to try hard develops own aviation plan. Newest will annihilate 8 to be able to continue the small volume production. If People's Liberation Army navy and air force in its airplane group for annihilates bang 7 to find the appropriate use, it possibly also can the mass productions. Will annihilate 10 to be able to start about 2005 to serve, at first reported estimated its output will be 300 (partially is decided by Soviet - 27 projects progress). How no matter, will annihilate 10 and annihilates 11 (Soviet - 27) to be able to constitute at the beginning of the 21st century the Chinese air force's main force battle formation.
    China also obtains the progress in the air refueling technology aspect, several bang 6 (chart - 16) and transported 8 (to be peaceful - 12) already by the reequipment was the aircraft-refueling vehicle.

Missile forces and strategic nuclear power
China's nuclear arsenal scale probably about 400 nuclear warheads. The report estimated has the about 20 nuclear warheads to deploy uses in the intercontinental nucleus attack use, but also has about 230 to deploy (or may deploy) on the fighter plane, the missile and the submarine uses in the local nucleus attack. Is left over 150 nuclear warheads are preserved use in "the tactic" the use (short range missile, low equivalent airplane throw bomb, possibly also has artillery shell and explosive damage installment).
The east wind - 5 liquid fuel intercontinental missile most was earlier than 1981 deployed that, the firing distance 13,000 kilometers, carried a equivalent megatonnage the nuclear warhead. According to what is believed some 20 this kind of missiles are deployed in the Beijing northwest direction Chinese inland. With the memory in the cave, and needs to move the Chinese early time ballistic missile which launches to the hole outside to be different, the east wind - 5 missiles may directly launch from the underground shaft - - but must after pass through two hours refuelling processes. In order to increase the east wind - 5 missiles the survivability, nearby the genuine launching silo has also constructed some camouflaged silos. The east wind - 5 missiles firing distances may cover Asia and Europe complete, as well as US'S majority of areas. Southeastern United States several states are located this kind of missile range the edge.
    Moreover two kind of long-range ballistics missile, the firing distance 8,000 kilometers east winds - 31 and the firing distance 12,000 kilometers east winds - 41, are being at the development phase. Two kind of missiles estimates all is the solid fuel, launches by the mobile launching trolley. At present already not clear China prepares to deploy how many these missiles, also not the clear each missile may carry how many nuclear warhead, but may affirm China is attempting to develop the multiple warhead missile and the assistance defense penetration technology, this is possibly the beaming type multiple warhead technology, or is even more advanced, but a technical difficulty also greater minute leads the type multiple warhead technology. The east wind - 31 missiles the actual combat deploys for the first time possibly before 2005, east wind - 41 possibly after its, about about 2010.
    China's navy nuclear power at present only is restricted in a 092 summers levels nuclear power ballistic missile submarine, in its log-book has the reactor and the noise question. The summer level may carry 12 very rough sea waves - 1 to dive shoots the ballistic missile, this kind of missile can carry 200 - 300 10 thousand-ton equivalent the nuclear warheads, the firing distance 1,700 kilometers. As a result of the technical level limit, Xia Ji never deploys offshore outside the place.
    It is said that China plans makes 4 ~ 6 new 094 ballistic missiles nuclear-powered submarine. 094 nuclear-powered submarines will equip to be safer, a more peaceful nuclear reactor and the more outstanding overall performance. It estimated will equip 16 very rough sea waves - 2 missiles, each this kind of missile will be most may carry 6 nuclear warheads (estimate will be has not divided leads ability beaming type). Missile for the first time test fire time estimate in 2002, but the estimate very rough sea waves - 2 actual research and development progress possibly can longer somewhat. The reason was this missile Lu Jixing the prototype east wind - 31 missiles until now only test fire. If China planned deployed is similar to the United States Navy nuclear submarine with guided missiles takes turns the system (each to prearrange the theater to have three nuclear-powered submarines, is at awaits orders the condition; Is departing or returns from cruise on the way; Overhauls in the port), then 6 nuclear-powered submarines will be able to cause China to guarantee as necessary will have 2 nuclear-powered submarines in the Pacific Ocean to be at awaits orders the condition, and will be able to attack Asian, European and Americas' complete scope. If will plan the missile which 6 submarines carries all to be able to achieve the greatest bomb-carrying capacity (6), then China will deploy dives the base nuclear warhead number to increase to 576. Even if these nuclear warheads do not have the minute to lead the ability, they also at least can attack 192 to be located American the goal, this also sufficiently causes US to draft the construction the national missile defense -Anmd system (NMD) to surpass the saturated condition, this individual is at present is urging China to accelerate its nuclear weapon modernization and the nuclear expansion of armaments plan.

    China has also deployed three kinds medium to long-range and the intermediate range ballistic missile. These missiles sufficiently to such as Asian country and so on the Japan and India form the strategic deterrent, but the threat which constitutes regarding Russia wants small somewhat, poses the threat to US then mainly is it in Japanese and South Korea's vulnerable foreign base.
    China most early deployed the nuclear-armed missile is the firing distance 2,800 kilometers, half mobile launches east wind - 3A. The estimate still at present - 15 and the east wind - 21 missiles substitutes in the service about 40 liquid fuel east wind - 3 missiles by the east wind. Receives is uses the liquid fuel the east wind - 4, its maximum range 4,750 kilometer. Probably some 40 launched the east wind - 4 missiles by the permanent site still during the service. China's region ballistic missile ability but greatly increases along with the east wind - 21 missiles services. This kind of missile is China's first kind of solid fuel intermediate range ballistic missile.

    Because the early east wind series missile time is long, coexists is abbreviated in the potential hazard fuel filling process, the solid fuel design caused China greatly to save the missile firing time. The east wind - 21 missiles are - 1 dive from the very rough sea waves shoot the ballistic missile development to come, most was earlier than 1986 deployed, the firing distance was 1,800 kilometers, launched by the maneuverable missile launching trolley.
    The early liquid-fueled missile carries an equivalent probably is 3.3 million tons nuclear warheads, the new solid fuel equips a biggest equivalent is hundreds of thousands of tons nuclear warheads.
    China's bomber force or based on most is earlier Soviet airplane this locality which deployed than the 50's produces the model. Along with the bang - 5 (Il - 28) the bomber aircraft retirement, the bang - 6 (chart - 16) becomes in the Chinese weapon cache only to have the nucleus attack ability bomber aircraft. The chart - 16 bomber aircrafts most were earlier than 1955 join the Soviet air force service, and started in the 60's in China to produce. The bang - 6 (chart - 16) may carry 1 ~ 3 nuclear bombs, the combat radius 1,800 ~ 3,100 kilometers. The Chinese People's Liberation Army air force has the about 120 bang - 6 (chart - 16) to be allowed to carry out the nucleus attack mission. Moreover also has the about 20 bang - 6 (chart - 16) to belong to the Chinese People's Liberation Army navy, does not use in the nuclear war duty. Has not substituted for the bang in the short-term future - 6 (chart - 16) the plan. Annihilates - 7 (Mig - 21), the renewal domestic product annihilates the bang - 7, as well as Russia exports Soviet - 27 - 30 all can carry out the nucleus attack task with Soviet, but believed they had not been deployed with makes that kind of use.

    The People's Liberation Army air force has about 20 ~ 40 to be strong - 5 "the fantan" the attack airplane to use in to carry out the nucleus attack task. Most was earlier than 1970 deployed formed an army in the strong - 5 essences was the Mig - 19 one kind of promotion improvement model, the Mig - 19 most is earlier than 1954 serves in Soviet Union, and will produce to a little later in China, the code number annihilated - 6. Strong - 5 may carry a freedom to fall the body the nuclear bomb, the combat radius 400 kilometers. The strong - 5 short combat radius has limited its battlefield potency display, even carries the conventional weapons time also is so.
    Two kind of short-range ballistic missile joined the People's Liberation Army missile forces army service about 1995. They are the firing distance 300 kilometers east winds - 11 (M - 11) and the firing distance 600 kilometers east winds - 15 (M - 9) ("east wind" are missile model code number which serves in China, M are model code number which uses in to export). Theoretically two kind of missiles can carry the nuclear warhead. To 2000, some several hundred east winds - 11 and the east wind - 15 already served, but majority of (if were not completely) all equips is the conventional warhead.

Arouses the international interest also to have the China cruise missile the development, at present has two travel equipments cruise missile, these 2 travel also are China "the seed army". China had all achieved in cruise missile nearly all technologies the use level, restricts its equipment army is only the satellite navigation technology. China reposes the hope in "Galileo" on, has paid 800 million US dollars for this them, and prepares to pay many. But China plans "the dubhe 2" possibly to take "Galileo" spare.

The missile raised the special warhead - neutron bomb, the nuclear electromagnetism spoke projectile and so on "the clean nuclear bomb" already was the Chinese strategist "the Assassin's mace". China potential enemy facing such question: "Whether had the determination to cope with Chinese with the nucleus deconstruction the tactical nucleus attack" the DF31 land base mobile ultra-long-range missile already to serve, estimated had 3 travel, in addition equipped the DF5 liquid intercontinental missile 6 travel which the launching silo launched, China may threaten American the intercontinental missile army to have 9 travel, more than 100 launching devices. At the same time, in 2004 year's end, DF41 (also possibly is DF31A) the land base mobile intercontinental missile started to undertake combat readiness duty, ahead of time has equipped 2 travel. DF41 firing distance in 12000-14000 kilometer, moreover has the bait many kinds of, machine the fluctuation axle and so on instead destroys the countermeasure, estimated DF41 completely will replace old style DF5.

Taiwan military


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    The nation has completed transportation network and so on the railroad, road, water transportation, aviation. Since the reform and open policy, our country highway construction enterprise has obtained the huge achievement.

    In 2002 the national railroad business course amounts to 71,900 kilometers, the passenger transport rate reaches 1.05606 billion people, the transported goods volume amounts to 2.04246 billion tons.

    The national road total quantity and the technical structure has had very sweeping change, is rapid take the highway as representative's first-class highway development, county township road fast growth. To 2002 year's end, the national road total course has amounted to 1.7652 million kilometers, highway 25,100 kilometers, road density 17.5 kilometers/hundred square kilometers. The national civil automobile reaches 20.53 million, private car 9.69 million.

    Until for 2002 year's end, the Chinese public net fixed telephone company with the telephone switchboard capacity achieved 284 million, the fixed telephone user amounts to 214 million households; The mobile phone user amounts to 210 million households; The national always telephone popular rate achieves 33.7%, the mobile phone popular rate achieves 16.19%; The fixed telephone and the mobile phone user scale occupies the second in the world.

Traveling Returns to the page head

    The tourism develops rapidly, the scenic spot historical site is multitudinous, Taishan, Huangshan Mountain, the Great Wall, the Beijing Imperial Palace, the Dunhuang Mogao Caves, the Chin Shihhuang mausoleum burial figures of warriors and horses, Mount Lushan and so on have been included the world culture inheritance.
   In 2002 whole year domestic goes to travel 878 million people, the domestic traveling receives 387.8 billion Yuan. Beyond the border the whole year enters a country the population 97.9 million people, international traveling foreign exchange earnings 20.4 billion US dollars. Whole year the mainland leaves country the population 16.6 million people, because private leaves country the population 10.06 million people.

City Returns to the page head

    Capital Beijing. The main cities are Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Xi'an, Nanjing, Hong Kong and so on

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