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CIA Seal  World Factbook Seal San Marino
Flag of San Marino
Map of San Marino
Introduction San Marino
The third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marino in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy; social and political trends in the republic also track closely with those of its larger neighbor.
Geography San Marino
Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
Geographic coordinates:
43 46 N, 12 25 E
Map references:
total: 61.2 sq km
land: 61.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total: 39 km
border countries: Italy 39 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
rugged mountains
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 755 m
Natural resources:
building stone
Land use:
arable land: 16.67%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 83.33% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution
Geography - note:
landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines
People San Marino
29,251 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.8% (male 2,534/female 2,372)
15-64 years: 66.2% (male 9,316/female 10,055)
65 years and over: 17% (male 2,149/female 2,825) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 40.6 years
male: 40.3 years
female: 41 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.26% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
10.02 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
8.17 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
10.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 5.63 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.06 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.71 years
male: 78.23 years
female: 85.5 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.34 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese
Ethnic groups:
Sammarinese, Italian
Roman Catholic
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 95% (1976 est.)
Government San Marino
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino
Government type:
independent republic
name: San Marino
geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle
3 September AD 301
National holiday:
Founding of the Republic, 3 September (AD 301)
8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution
Legal system:
based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Cochiefs of State Captain Regent Antonio CARATTONI and Captain Regent Roberto GIORGETTI (for the period 1 October 2006-31 March 2007)
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Fiorenzo STOLFI (since 27 July 2006)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term
elections: cochiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held in September 2006 (next to be held March 2007); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held 13 December 2003 (next to be held NA)
election results: Antonio CARATTONI and Roberto GIORGETTI elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA; Fiorenzo STOLFI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA
note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 10 other members, all selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 10 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles
Legislative branch:
unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 4 June 2006 (next to be held by June 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - PDCS 32.9%, Party of Socialists and Democrats 31.9%, APDS 11.9%, United Left 8.7%, New Socialist Party 5.4%; seats by party - PDCS 21, Party of Socialists and Democrats 20, APDS 7, United Left 5, New Socialist Party 3, other 4
Judicial branch:
Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII
Political parties and leaders:
Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Ideas in Movement or IM [Alessandro ROSSI]; National Alliance or AN; New Socialist Party; Party of Socialists and Democrats [Claudio FELICI]; San Marino Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Giovanni LONFERNINI]; San Marino Popular Alliance of Democrats or APDS [Roberto GIORGETTI]; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Alberto CECCHETTI]; Socialists for Reform or SR [Renzo GIARDI]; United Left
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
San Marino does not have an embassy in the US
honorary consulate(s) general: New York, Washington, DC
honorary consulate(s): Detroit, Honolulu
Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the US Consul General in Florence (Italy) is accredited to San Marino; note - ambassador to Italy Ronald SPOGLI was appointed in September 2006 to be US Ambassador to San Marino; when the accreditation process is complete, Ambassador SPOGLI will be the first US Ambassador to San Marino
Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty)
Economy San Marino
Economy - overview:
The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In 2000 more than 3 million tourists visited San Marino. The key industries are banking, wearing apparel, electronics, and ceramics. Main agricultural products are wine and cheeses. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy, which supplies much of its food.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$940 million (2001 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$880 million (2002)
GDP - real growth rate:
2.3% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$34,600 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Labor force:
19,970 (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 42%
services: 57% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2.6% (2001)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-1.7% (2001)
revenues: $400 million
expenditures: $400 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides
tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine
Industrial production growth rate:
6% (1997 est.)
trade data are included with the statistics for Italy
Exports - commodities:
building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics
trade data are included with the statistics for Italy
Imports - commodities:
wide variety of consumer manufactures, food
Debt - external:
Economic aid - recipient:
Currency (code):
euro (EUR)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
euros per US dollar - 0.79669 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications San Marino
Telephones - main lines in use:
20,600 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
16,800 (2002)
Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate connections
domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system
international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
16,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
1 (San Marino residents also receive broadcasts from Italy) (1997)
9,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
3,140 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
2 (2000)
Internet users:
14,300 (2002)
Transportation San Marino
total: 104 km
paved: 104 km (2003)
Military San Marino
Military branches:
no regular military forces; Voluntary Military Force (Corpi Militari Voluntar) performs ceremonial duties and limited police functions (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 6,331 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 5,107 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 135 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$700,000 (FY00/01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of Italy
Transnational Issues San Marino
Disputes - international:

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007