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Flag of Senegal
Map of Senegal
Introduction Senegal
Independent from France in 1960, Senegal was ruled by the Socialist Party for forty years until current President Abdoulaye WADE was elected in 2000. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982, but the envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. A southern separatist group sporadically has clashed with government forces since 1982, but Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping.
Geography Senegal
Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Geographic coordinates:
14 00 N, 14 00 W
Map references:
total: 196,190 sq km
land: 192,000 sq km
water: 4,190 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries:
total: 2,640 km
border countries: The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km
531 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed feature near Nepen Diakha 581 m
Natural resources:
fish, phosphates, iron ore
Land use:
arable land: 12.51%
permanent crops: 0.24%
other: 87.25% (2005)
Irrigated land:
1,200 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:
wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
Geography - note:
westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
People Senegal
11,987,121 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 40.8% (male 2,467,021/female 2,422,385)
15-64 years: 56.1% (male 3,346,756/female 3,378,518)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 174,399/female 198,042) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 19.1 years
male: 18.9 years
female: 19.3 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.34% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
32.78 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
9.42 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 52.94 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 56.49 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 49.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 59.25 years
male: 57.7 years
female: 60.85 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.38 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.8% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
44,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
3,500 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, yellow fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Rift Valley fever are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2005)
noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
Ethnic groups:
Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%
Muslim 94%, Christian 5% (mostly Roman Catholic), indigenous beliefs 1%
French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 40.2%
male: 50%
female: 30.7% (2003 est.)
Government Senegal
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal
former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia); Mali Federation
Government type:
name: Dakar
geographic coordinates: 14 40 N, 17 26 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
11 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
new constitution adopted 7 January 2001
Legal system:
based on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; the Council of State audits the government's accounting office; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abdoulaye WADE (since 1 April 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Macky SALL (since 21 April 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) under new constitution; election last held under prior constitution (seven-year terms) 27 February and 19 March 2000 (next to be held 25 February 2007); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abdoulaye WADE elected president; percent of vote in the second round of voting - Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 58.5%, Abdou DIOUF (PS) 41.5%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (120 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve five-year terms)
note: the former National Assembly had 120 seats, but deputies in late 2006 voted to expand the number of seats to 140
elections: last held 29 April 2001 (next to be held 25 February 2007) note - the National Assembly in December 2005 voted to postpone legislative elections originally scheduled for 2006, they will now coincide with presidential elections in 2007
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SOPI Coalition 89, AFP 11, PS 10, other 10
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court; Council of State; Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals
Political parties and leaders:
African Party of Independence [Majhemout DIOP]; And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism (also known as AJ/PADS) [Landing SAVANE, secretary general]; Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]; Democratic and Patriotic Convention or CDP (also known as Garab-Gi) [Dr. Iba Der THIAM]; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Front for Socialism and Democracy or FSD [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF]; People's Labor Party or PTP [Elhadji DIOUF]; Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]; Rewmi [Idrissa SECK]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]; SOPI Coalition [Abdoulaye WADE] (a coalition led by the PDS); Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
labor; Muslim brotherhoods; students; teachers
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Amadou Lamine BA
chancery: 2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6315
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Janice L. JACOBS
embassy: Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Rue Kleber, Dakar
mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 823-4296
FAX: [221] 822-2991
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Economy Senegal
Economy - overview:
In January 1994, Senegal undertook a bold and ambitious economic reform program with the support of the international donor community. This reform began with a 50% devaluation of Senegal's currency, the CFA franc, which was linked at a fixed rate to the French franc. Government price controls and subsidies have been steadily dismantled. After seeing its economy contract by 2.1% in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks to the reform program, with real growth in GDP averaging over 5% annually during 1995-2006. Annual inflation had been pushed down to the low single digits. As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff and a more stable monetary policy. High unemployment, however, continues to prompt illegal migrants to flee Senegal in search of better job opportunities in Europe. Senegal was also beset by an energy crisis that caused widespread blackouts in 2006. Senegal still relies heavily upon outside donor assistance. Under the IMF's Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief program, Senegal will benefit from eradication of two-thirds of its bilateral, multilateral, and private-sector debt.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$22.01 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$8.562 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
4.9% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,800 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 18.3%
industry: 19.2%
services: 62.5% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
4.749 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 77%
industry and services: 23% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
48%; note - urban youth 40% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
54% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 33.5% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
41.3 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
41% of GDP (2006 est.)
revenues: $2.023 billion
expenditures: $2.377 billion; including capital expenditures of $357 million (2006 est.)
Public debt:
17.8% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
Industrial production growth rate:
3.2% (2006 est.)
Electricity - production:
1.453 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
1.351 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:
31,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
50 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
50 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance:
$-895.2 million (2006 est.)
$1.478 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
Exports - partners:
Mali 16.9%, India 13.1%, France 9.5%, Spain 6.1%, Italy 5.5%, Gambia, The 4.6% (2005)
$2.98 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
Imports - partners:
France 22.8%, Nigeria 11.4%, Brazil 4.5%, Thailand 4.3%, US 4.2%, UK 4% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$1.18 billion (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
$1.628 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$449.6 million (2003 est.)
Currency (code):
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 522.592 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Senegal
Telephones - main lines in use:
266,600 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
1.73 million (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: good system
domestic: above-average urban system; microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
international: country code - 221; 4 submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 8, FM 20, shortwave 1 (2001)
1.24 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
1 (1997)
361,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
412 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
1 (2002)
Internet users:
540,000 (2005)
Transportation Senegal
20 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
gas 43 km (2006)
total: 906 km
narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000 meter gauge (2005)
total: 13,576 km
paved: 3,972 km (including 7 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,604 km (2003)
1,000 km (primarily on Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance rivers) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Military Senegal
Military branches:
Army, Senegalese Navy (Marine Senegalaise), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - two years (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 2,443,840
females age 18-49: 2,461,939 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,558,175
females age 18-49: 1,642,533 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 129,331
females age 18-49: 129,398 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$117.3 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.4% (2005 est.)
Transnational Issues Senegal
Disputes - international:
The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau attempt to stem Senegalese citizens from the Casamance region fleeing separatist violence, cross border raids, and arms smuggling
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 19,778 (Mauritania)
IDPs: 17,000 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007