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Flag of Norfolk Island
Map of Norfolk Island
Introduction Norfolk Island
Two British attempts at establishing the island as a penal colony (1788-1814 and 1825-55) were ultimately abandoned. In 1856, the island was resettled by Pitcairn Islanders, descendants of the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian companions.
Geography Norfolk Island
Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia
Geographic coordinates:
29 02 S, 167 57 E
Map references:
total: 34.6 sq km
land: 34.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
32 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
subtropical; mild, little seasonal temperature variation
volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Bates 319 m
Natural resources:
Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Natural hazards:
typhoons (especially May to July)
Environment - current issues:
Geography - note:
most of the 32 km coastline consists of almost inaccessible cliffs, but the land slopes down to the sea in one small southern area on Sydney Bay, where the capital of Kingston is situated
People Norfolk Island
1,828 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 20.2%
15-64 years: 63.9%
65 years and over: 15.9% (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.01% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
Sex ratio:
Infant mortality rate:
total: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Total fertility rate:
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
noun: Norfolk Islander(s)
adjective: Norfolk Islander(s)
Ethnic groups:
descendants of the Bounty mutineers, Australian, New Zealander, Polynesian
Anglican 34.9%, Roman Catholic 11.7%, Uniting Church in Australia 11.2%, Seventh-Day Adventist 2.8%, Australian Christian 2.4%, Jehovah's Witness 0.9%, other 2.7%, unspecified 15.3%, none 18.1% (2001 census)
English (official), Norfolk a mixture of 18th century English and ancient Tahitian
Government Norfolk Island
Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Norfolk Island
conventional short form: Norfolk Island
Dependency status:
territory of Australia; Canberra administers Commonwealth responsibilities on Norfolk Island through the Department of Environment, Sport, and Territories
Government type:
name: Kingston
geographic coordinates: 29 03 S, 167 58 E
time difference: UTC+11.5 (16.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of Australia)
none (territory of Australia)
National holiday:
Bounty Day (commemorates the arrival of Pitcairn Islanders), 8 June (1856)
Norfolk Island Act of 1979
Legal system:
based on the laws of Australia, local ordinances and acts; English common law applies in matters not covered by either Australian or Norfolk Island law
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); the UK and Australia are represented by Administrator Grant TAMBLING (since 1 November 2003)
head of government: Assembly President and Chief Minister Geoffrey Robert GARDNER (since 5 December 2001)
cabinet: Executive Council is made up of four of the nine members of the Legislative Assembly; the council devises government policy and acts as an advisor to the administrator
elections: the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia; chief minister elected by the Legislative Assembly for a term of not more than three years; election last held 20 October 2004 (next to be held by December 2007)
election results: Geoffrey Robert GARDNER elected chief minister; percent of Legislative Assembly vote - 17.2%
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly (9 seats; members elected by electors who have nine equal votes each but only four votes can be given to any one candidate; members serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 20 October 2004 (next to be held by December 2007)
election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats - independents 9 (note - no political parties)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Court of Petty Sessions
Political parties and leaders:
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (territory of Australia)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (territory of Australia)
Flag description:
three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green with a large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly wider white band
Economy Norfolk Island
Economy - overview:
Tourism, the primary economic activity, has steadily increased over the years and has brought a level of prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific islands. The agricultural sector has become self-sufficient in the production of beef, poultry, and eggs.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Labor force:
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 10%
industry and services: 90%
Unemployment rate:
revenues: $4.6 million
expenditures: $4.8 million; including capital expenditures of $2 million (FY99/00)
Agriculture - products:
Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals, vegetables, fruit; cattle, poultry
tourism, light industry, ready mixed concrete
Electricity - production:
NA kWh
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 0%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2002)
Electricity - consumption:
NA kWh
$1.5 million f.o.b. (FY91/92)
Exports - commodities:
postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia palm, small quantities of avocados
Exports - partners:
Australia, other Pacific island countries, NZ, Asia, Europe (2004)
$17.9 million c.i.f. (FY91/92)
Imports - commodities:
Imports - partners:
Australia, other Pacific island countries, NZ, Asia, Europe (2004)
Debt - external:
Economic aid - recipient:
Currency (code):
Australian dollar (AUD)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.3095 (2005), 1.3598 (2004), 1.5419 (2003), 1.8406 (2002)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June
Communications Norfolk Island
Telephones - main lines in use:
2,532; note - a mix of analog (2500) and digital (32) circuits (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
0 (proposed cellular service disallowed in August 2002 island referendum) (2002)
Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate
domestic: free local calls
international: country code - 672; undersea coaxial cable links with Australia, New Zealand, and Canada; satellite earth station
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0 (2005)
2,500 (1996)
Television broadcast stations:
1 (local programming station plus two repeaters that bring in Australian programs by satellite) (2005)
1,200 (1996)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
100 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
2 (2000)
Internet users:
Transportation Norfolk Island
1 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)
total: 80 km
paved: 53 km
unpaved: 27 km (2002)
Ports and terminals:
none; loading jetties at Kingston and Cascade
Military Norfolk Island
Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia
Transnational Issues Norfolk Island
Disputes - international:

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007