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CIA Seal  World Factbook Seal Niue
Flag of Niue
Map of Niue
Introduction Niue
Niue's remoteness, as well as cultural and linguistic differences between its Polynesian inhabitants and those of the rest of the Cook Islands, have caused it to be separately administered. The population of the island continues to drop (from a peak of 5,200 in 1966 to about 2,166 in 2006), with substantial emigration to New Zealand, 2,400 km to the southwest.
Geography Niue
Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga
Geographic coordinates:
19 02 S, 169 52 W
Map references:
total: 260 sq km
land: 260 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
64 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
tropical; modified by southeast trade winds
steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location near Mutalau settlement 68 m
Natural resources:
fish, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 11.54%
permanent crops: 15.38%
other: 73.08% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
increasing attention to conservationist practices to counter loss of soil fertility from traditional slash and burn agriculture
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
one of world's largest coral islands
People Niue
2,166 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.01% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population
Sex ratio:
Infant mortality rate:
total: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Total fertility rate:
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
noun: Niuean(s)
adjective: Niuean
Ethnic groups:
Niuen 78.2%, Pacific islander 10.2%, European 4.5%, mixed 3.9%, Asian 0.2%, unspecified 3% (2001 census)
Ekalesia Niue (Niuean Church - a Protestant church closely related to the London Missionary Society) 61.1%, Latter-Day Saints 8.8%, Roman Catholic 7.2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2.4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.4%, other 8.4%, unspecified 8.7%, none 1.9% (2001 census)
Niuean, a Polynesian language closely related to Tongan and Samoan; English
definition: NA
total population: 95%
male: NA
female: NA
Government Niue
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Niue
former: Savage Island
Dependency status:
self-governing in free association with New Zealand since 1974; Niue fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs and defense; however, these responsibilities confer no rights of control and are only exercised at the request of the Government of Niue
Government type:
self-governing parliamentary democracy
name: Alofi
geographic coordinates: 19 01 S, 169 55 W
time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
none; note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 14 villages at the second order
on 19 October 1974, Niue became a self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New Zealand
National holiday:
Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)
19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)
Legal system:
English common law; note - Niue is self-governing, with the power to make its own laws
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General of New Zealand Anand SATYANAND (since 23 August 2006); the UK and New Zealand are represented by New Zealand High Commissioner John BRYAN (since NA May 2000)
head of government: Premier Young VIVIAN (since 1 May 2002)
cabinet: Cabinet consists of the premier and three ministers
elections: the monarch is hereditary; premier elected by the Legislative Assembly for a three-year term; election last held 12 May 2005 (next to be held May 2008)
election results: Young VIVIAN reelected premier; percent of Legislative Assembly vote - Young VIVIAN (NPP) 85%, O'Love JACOBSEN (independent) 15%
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Assembly (20 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; 6 elected from a common roll and 14 are village representatives)
elections: last held 30 April 2005 (next to be held April 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of New Zealand; High Court of Niue
Political parties and leaders:
Alliance of Independents or AI; Niue People's Action Party or NPP [Young VIVIAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand)
Flag description:
yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the flag of the UK bears five yellow five-pointed stars - a large one on a blue disk in the center and a smaller one on each arm of the bold red cross
Economy Niue
Economy - overview:
The economy suffers from the typical Pacific island problems of geographic isolation, few resources, and a small population. Government expenditures regularly exceed revenues, and the shortfall is made up by critically needed grants from New Zealand that are used to pay wages to public employees. Niue has cut government expenditures by reducing the public service by almost half. The agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence gardening, although some cash crops are grown for export. Industry consists primarily of small factories to process passion fruit, lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of revenue. The island in recent years has suffered a serious loss of population because of emigration to New Zealand. Efforts to increase GDP include the promotion of tourism and a financial services industry, although the International Banking Repeal Act of 2002 resulted in the termination of all offshore banking licenses. Economic aid from New Zealand in 2002 was about US$2 million. Niue suffered a devastating typhoon in January 2004, which decimated nascent economic programs. While in the process of rebuilding, Niue has been dependent on foreign aid.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$7.6 million (2000 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$10.01 million (2003)
GDP - real growth rate:
6.2% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$5,800 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 23.5%
industry: 26.9%
services: 49.5% (2003)
Labor force:
663 (2001)
Labor force - by occupation:
note: most work on family plantations; paid work exists only in government service, small industry, and the Niue Development Board
Unemployment rate:
12% (2001)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4% (2005)
revenues: $15.07 million
expenditures: $16.33 million; including capital expenditures of $123,700 (FY0405)
Agriculture - products:
coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes, taro, yams, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle
tourism, handicrafts, food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:
3 million kWh (2004)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
2.79 million kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:
20 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA bbl/day (2001)
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
$201,400 (2004)
Exports - commodities:
canned coconut cream, copra, honey, vanilla, passion fruit products, pawpaws, root crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts
Exports - partners:
New Zealand mainly, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia (2004)
$9.038 million (2004)
Imports - commodities:
food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants, chemicals, drugs
Imports - partners:
New Zealand mainly, Fiji, Japan, Samoa, Australia, US (2004)
Debt - external:
$418,000 (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$2.6 million from New Zealand (2002)
Currency (code):
New Zealand dollar (NZD)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
New Zealand dollars per US dollar - 1.4203 (2005), 1.5087 (2004), 1.7221 (2003), 2.1622 (2002)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
Communications Niue
Telephones - main lines in use:
1,100 est (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
400 (2002)
Telephone system:
domestic: single-line telephone system connects all villages on island
international: country code - 683
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)
1,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
1 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
1 (2000)
Internet users:
900 (2002)
Transportation Niue
1 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)
total: 234 km
paved: 86 km
unpaved: 148 km (2001)
Ports and terminals:
none; offshore anchorage only
Military Niue
Military branches:
no regular indigenous military forces; Police Force
Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
Transnational Issues Niue
Disputes - international:

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007