Country List | World Factbook Home
CIA Seal  World Factbook Seal Montenegro
Flag of Montenegro
Map of Montenegro
Introduction Montenegro
The use of the name Montenegro began in the 15th century when the Crnojevic dynasty began to rule the Serbian principality of Zeta; over subsequent centuries Montenegro was able to maintain its independence from the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro became a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. After World War I, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally declare its independence on 3 June 2006.
Geography Montenegro
Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Geographic coordinates:
42 30 N, 19 18 E
Map references:
total: 14,026 sq km
land: 13,812 sq km
water: 214 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
total: 625 km
border countries: Albania 172 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 225 km, Croatia 25 km, Serbia 203 km
293.5 km
Maritime claims:
Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m
Natural resources:
bauxite, hydroelectricity
Land use:
arable land: 13.7%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 85.3%
Irrigated land:
Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
Geography - note:
strategic location along the Adriatic coast
People Montenegro
630,548 (2004)
Population growth rate:
3.5% (2004)
Birth rate:
12.6 births/1,000 population (2004)
Death rate:
9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2004)
noun: Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Montenegrin
Ethnic groups:
Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 32%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, other (Muslims, Croats, Roma) 12%
Orthodox, Muslim, Roman Catholic
Serbian (Ijekavian dialect - official), Bosnian, Albanian, Croatian
Government Montenegro
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Montenegro
conventional short form: Montenegro
local long form: Republika Crna Gora
local short form: Crna Gora
former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro
Government type:
name: Podgorica (administrative capital)
geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note: Cetinje (capital city)
Administrative divisions:
21 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Andrijevia, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Plav, Pluzine, Pljevlja, Podgornica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak
3 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)
National holiday:
National Day, 13 July
12 October 1992 (was approved by the Assembly); note - Montenegro is currently writing a new constitution set to be presented to Parliament in spring 2007
Legal system:
based on civil law system
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 11 May 2003)
head of government: Prime Minister Zeljko STURANOVIC (since 13 November 2006)
cabinet: Ministries act as cabinet
elections: president elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 11 May 2003 (next to be held in 2008); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly
election results: Filip VUJANOVIC elected on the third round; Filip VUJANOVIC 63.3%, Miodrag ZIVKOVIC 30.8%
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly (81 seats, elected by direct vote for four-year terms; changed from 74 seats in 2006)
elections: last held 10 September 2006 (next to be held 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Coalition for a European Montenegro 41, SNS 12, Coalition SPP/NS/DSS 11, PZP 11, Liberals and Bosniaks 3, Democratic League-Democratic Prosperity 1, Democratic Union of Albanians 1, Albanian Alternative 1
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (five judges with nine-year terms); Supreme Court (judges have life tenure)
Political parties and leaders:
Albanian Alternative or AA [Vesel SINISHTAJ]; Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]; Democratic League-Party of Democratic Prosperity or SPP [Mehmet BARHDI]; Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Ranko KADIC]; Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Ferhat DINOSA]; Liberal Party of Montenegro or LP [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC]; Movement for Changes or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]; Party of Serb Radicals or SSR [Dusko SEKULIC]; People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Predrag POPOVIC]; People's Socialist Party or NSS [Emilo LABUDOVIC]; Serbian People's Party of Montenegro or SNS [Andrija MANDIC]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]; Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC]
International organization participation:
CEI, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, ILO, Interpol, IPU, ITU, ITUC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UPU, WHO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Miodrag VLAHOVIC
Flag description:
a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered
Economy Montenegro
Economy - overview:
The republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and continues to maintain its own central bank, uses the euro instead of the Yugoslav dinar as official currency, collects customs tariffs, and manages its own budget. The dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro in 2006 led to separate membership in several international financial institutions, such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Montenegro is pursuing its own membership in the World Trade Organization as well as negotiating a Stabilization and Association agreement with the European Union in anticipation of eventual membership. Severe unemployment remains a key political and economic problem for this entire region. Montenegro has privatized its large aluminum complex - the dominant industry - as well as most of its financial sector, and has begun to attract foreign direct investment in the tourism sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$3.394 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$4.744 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$3,800 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Labor force:
259,100 (2004)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 30%
services: 68% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:
27.7% (2005)
Population below poverty line:
12.2% (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.4% (2004)
Investment (gross fixed):
% of GDP NA
revenues: NA
expenditures: NA
Public debt:
% of GDP NA
Agriculture - products:
grains, tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheepherding; commercial fishing negligible
steelmaking, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
Electricity - production:
2.864 billion kWh 2.864 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
18.6 million kWh
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day
Oil - consumption:
450 bbl/day
Natural gas - consumption:
Current account balance:
$171.3 million (2003)
Exports - partners:
Switzerland 83.9%, Italy 6.1%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.3% (2003)
$601.7 million (2003)
Imports - partners:
Greece 10.2%, Italy 10.2%, Germany 9.6%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.2% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Debt - external:
Economic aid - recipient:
Currency (code):
euro (EUR)
Exchange rates:
euros per US dollar - 0.79669 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8089 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Montenegro
Telephones - main lines in use:
177,663 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
543,220 (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites
domestic: GSM wireless service, available through two providers with national coverage, is growing rapidly
international: country code - 382 (the old code of 381 used by Serbia and Montenegro will also remain in use until Feb 2007); two international switches connect the national system
Radio broadcast stations:
31 (2004)
Television broadcast stations:
13 (2004)
Internet country code:
Internet users:
50,000 (2004)
Transportation Montenegro
5 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
total: 250 km
standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 169 km) (2005)
total: 7,353 km
paved: 4,274 km
unpaved: 3,079 km (2005)
Merchant marine:
total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 9,458 GRT/10,172 DWT
by type: cargo 4
registered in other countries: 4 (Bahamas 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Military Montenegro
Military service age and obligation:
compulsory national military service abolished August 2006
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$2.306 billion
Military - note:
Montenegrin plans call for the establishment of a fully professional armed forces
Transnational Issues Montenegro
Disputes - international:
ethnic Albanians in Kosovo refuse demarcation of the boundary with Macedonia in accordance with the 2000 Macedonia-Serbia and Montenegro delimitation agreement, which includes a section of boundary with Montenegro

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007