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Flag of Lithuania
Map of Lithuania
Introduction Lithuania
Independent between the two World Wars, Lithuania was annexed by the USSR in 1940. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
Geography Lithuania
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
56 00 N, 24 00 E
Map references:
total: 65,200 sq km
land: NA sq km
water: NA sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total: 1,613 km
border countries: Belarus 653.5 km, Latvia 588 km, Poland 103.7 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 267.8 km
90 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Juozapines Kalnas 293.6 m
Natural resources:
peat, arable land, amber
Land use:
arable land: 44.81%
permanent crops: 0.9%
other: 54.29% (2005)
Irrigated land:
70 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits
People Lithuania
3,585,906 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 15.5% (male 284,888/female 270,458)
15-64 years: 69.1% (male 1,210,557/female 1,265,542)
65 years and over: 15.5% (male 190,496/female 363,965) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 38.2 years
male: 35.7 years
female: 40.8 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.3% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
8.75 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
10.98 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
-0.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.52 male(s)/female
total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 6.78 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.2 years
male: 69.2 years
female: 79.49 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.2 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
1,300 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 200 (2003 est.)
noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian
Ethnic groups:
Lithuanian 83.4%, Polish 6.7%, Russian 6.3%, other or unspecified 3.6% (2001 census)
Roman Catholic 79%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Protestant (including Lutheran and Evangelical Christian Baptist) 1.9%, other or unspecified 5.5%, none 9.5% (2001 census)
Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other and unspecified 4.4% (2001 census)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2003 est.)
Government Lithuania
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
parliamentary democracy
name: Vilnius
geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
10 counties (apskritys, singular - apskritis); Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages, Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus
11 March 1990 (independence declared from Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (Soviet Union recognizes Lithuania's independence)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 is the date Lithuania declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 11 March 1990 is the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
adopted 25 October 1992
Legal system:
based on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 12 July 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Gediminas KIRKILAS (since 4 July 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 and 27 June 2004 (next to be held June 2009); prime minister appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote - Valdas ADAMKUS 52.2%, Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE 47.8%; Gediminas KIRKILAS approved by Parliament 85-13, with 5 abstentions
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats, 71 members are directly elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by proportional representation; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 10 and 24 October 2004 (next to be held October 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - Labor 28.6%, Working for Lithuania (Social Democrats and Social Liberals) 20.7%, TS 14.6%, For Order and Justice (Liberal Democrats and Lithuanian People's Union) 11.4%, Liberal and Center Union 9.1%, Farmers and New Democracy Union 6.6%, other 9%; seats by faction - Labor 29, Homeland Union 26, Social Democrats 23, Civil Democracy (split from Labor) 11, Liberal Movement (formerly Liberal Political Group) 11, National Farmer's Union (formerly Farmers and New Democracy Union) 11, Social Liberal 10, Liberal Democrats 9, Liberal and Center Political Group 8, independents 3 (as of late-July 2006)
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the President
Political parties and leaders:
Civil Democracy Party [Viktor MUNTIANAS, chairman]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI, chairman]; National Farmer's Union [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE, chairman]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Andrius KUBILIUS, chairman]; Labor Party; Liberal and Center Political Group [Arturas ZUOKAS, chairman]; Liberal Democratic Party [Valentinas MAZURONIS, chairman]; Liberal Movement; Lithuanian Christian Democrats or LKD [Valentinas STUNDYS, chairman]; Lithuanian People's Union for a Fair Lithuania; Lithuanian Social Democratic Coalition [Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS, chairman] consists of the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party or LDDP and the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP; Social Liberal/New Union [Arturas PAULAUSKAS, chairman]; Social Union of Christian Conservatives [Gediminas VAGNORIUS, chairman]; Young Lithuania and New Nationalists
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kornelija JURGAITIENE
chancery: 4590 MacArthur Blvd. NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John A. CLOUD
embassy: Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106
mailing address: American Embassy, Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius LT-03106
telephone: [370] (5) 266 5500
FAX: [370] (5) 266 5510
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red
Economy Lithuania
Economy - overview:
Lithuania, the Baltic state that has conducted the most trade with Russia, has slowly rebounded from the 1998 Russian financial crisis. Unemployment dropped from 11% in 2003 to 4.5% in 2006. Growing domestic consumption and increased investment have furthered recovery. Trade has been increasingly oriented toward the West. Lithuania has gained membership in the World Trade Organization and joined the EU in May 2004. Privatization of the large, state-owned utilities, particularly in the energy sector, is nearing completion. Overall, more than 80% of enterprises have been privatized. Foreign government and business support have helped in the transition from the old command economy to a market economy.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$54.03 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
$25.78 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
7.2% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$15,100 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5.5%
industry: 33.3%
services: 61.2% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
1.617 million (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 15.8%
industry: 28.2%
services: 56% (2004)
Unemployment rate:
4.5% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 24.9% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
32.5 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.6% (2006 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
23% of GDP (2006 est.)
revenues: $9.415 billion
expenditures: $9.761 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt:
18% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs; fish
metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry
Industrial production growth rate:
7% (2006 est.)
Electricity - production:
17.8 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 16.5%
hydro: 5.7%
nuclear: 77.7%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
9.358 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
11.49 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
4.293 billion kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
14,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:
56,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
93,000 bbl/day (2004)
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2004)
Natural gas - consumption:
2.92 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
2.92 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance:
$-2.572 billion (2006 est.)
$14.64 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
mineral products 23%, textiles and clothing 16%, machinery and equipment 11%, chemicals 6%, wood and wood products 5%, foodstuffs 5% (2001)
Exports - partners:
Russia 10.4%, Latvia 10.2%, Germany 9.4%, France 7.1%, Estonia 5.9%, Poland 5.5%, Sweden 5%, US 4.7%, UK 4.7%, Denmark 4.3% (2005)
$18.25 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
mineral products, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals
Imports - partners:
Russia 27.9%, Germany 15.1%, Poland 8.3% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$5.22 billion (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
$15.12 billion (30 June 2006 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$1.6 billion (1995)
Currency (code):
litas (LTL)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
litai per US dollar - 2.7508 (2006), 2.774 (2005), 2.7806 (2004), 3.0609 (2003), 3.677 (2002)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Lithuania
Telephones - main lines in use:
801,100 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
4.353 million (2005)
Telephone system:
general assessment: inadequate, but is being modernized to provide an improved international capability and better residential access
domestic: a national, fiber-optic cable, interurban, trunk system is nearing completion; rural exchanges are being improved and expanded; mobile cellular systems are being installed; access to the Internet is available; still many unsatisfied telephone subscriber applications
international: country code - 370; landline connections to Latvia and Poland; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 29, FM 142, shortwave 1 (2001)
1.9 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
note: Lithuania has approximately 27 broadcasting stations, but may have as many as 100 transmitters, including repeater stations (2001)
1.7 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
148,675 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
32 (2001)
Internet users:
1,221,700 (2005)
Transportation Lithuania
91 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 34
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 20 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 57
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 53 (2006)
gas 1,696 km; oil 228 km; refined products 121 km (2006)
total: 1,771 km
broad gauge: 1,749 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified)
standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge (2005)
total: 79,497 km
paved: 70,549 km (including 417 km of expressways)
unpaved: 8,948 km (2005)
425 km (2005)
Merchant marine:
total: 49 ships (1000 GRT or over) 353,094 GRT/352,883 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 20, chemical tanker 1, container 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 14, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 10 (Denmark 10)
registered in other countries: 17 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Belize 1, North Korea 1, Norway 1, Panama 5, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, unknown 3) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Military Lithuania
Military branches:
Ground Forces, Naval Force, Lithuanian Military Air Forces, National Defense Volunteer Forces (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
19-45 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation - 12 months; 18 years of age for volunteers (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 19-49: 830,368
females age 19-49: 830,524 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 19-49: 590,606
females age 19-49: 676,102 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 29,689
females age 19-49: 28,543 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$230.8 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.9% (FY01)
Transnational Issues Lithuania
Disputes - international:
Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, to strict Schengen border rules; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over potential hydrocarbons
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Southwest Asia, Latin America, and Western Europe to Western Europe and Scandinavia; limited production of methamphetamine and ecstasy; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007