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Map of Cyprus
Introduction Cyprus
A former British colony, Cyprus became independent in 1960 following years of resistance to British rule. Tensions between the Greek Cypriot majority and Turkish Cypriot minority came to a head in December 1963, when violence broke out in the capital of Nicosia. Despite the deployment of UN peacekeepers in 1964, sporadic intercommunal violence continued forcing most Turkish Cypriots into enclaves throughout the island. In 1974, a Greek Government-sponsored attempt to seize control of Cyprus was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon controlled more than a third of the island. In 1983, the Turkish-held area declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," but it is recognized only by Turkey. The latest two-year round of UN-brokered talks - between the leaders of the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities to reach an agreement to reunite the divided island - ended when the Greek Cypriots rejected the UN settlement plan in an April 2004 referendum. The entire island entered the EU on 1 May 2004, although the EU acquis - the body of common rights and obligations - applies only to the areas under direct Republic of Cyprus control, and is suspended in the areas administered by Turkish Cypriots. At present, every Cypriot carrying a Cyprus passport has the status of a European citizen; however, EU laws do not apply to north Cyprus. Nicosia continues to oppose EU efforts to establish direct trade and economic links to north Cyprus as a way of encouraging the Turkish Cypriot community to continue to support reunification.
Geography Cyprus
Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey
Geographic coordinates:
35 00 N, 33 00 E
Map references:
Middle East
total: 9,250 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in north Cyprus)
land: 9,240 sq km
water: 10 sq km
Area - comparative:
about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
total: NA; note - boundary with Dhekelia is being resurveyed
border countries: Akrotiri 47.4 km, Dhekelia NA
648 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters
central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Olympus 1,951 m
Natural resources:
copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt, marble, clay earth pigment
Land use:
arable land: 10.81%
permanent crops: 4.32%
other: 84.87% (2005)
Irrigated land:
400 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
moderate earthquake activity; droughts
Environment - current issues:
water resource problems (no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily and Sardinia)
People Cyprus
784,301 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 20.4% (male 81,776/female 78,272)
15-64 years: 68% (male 270,254/female 263,354)
65 years and over: 11.6% (male 39,536/female 51,109) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 34.9 years
male: 33.9 years
female: 35.9 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.53% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
12.56 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
7.68 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 7.04 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.74 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.82 years
male: 75.44 years
female: 80.31 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.82 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
less than 1,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
noun: Cypriot(s)
adjective: Cypriot
Ethnic groups:
Greek 77%, Turkish 18%, other 5% (2001)
Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian Apostolic, and other 4%
Greek, Turkish, English
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.6%
male: 98.9%
female: 96.3% (2003 est.)
Government Cyprus
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
conventional short form: Cyprus
local long form: Kypriaki Dimokratia/Kibris Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Kypros/Kibris
note: the Turkish Cypriot community (north Cyprus) refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)
Government type:
note: a separation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began following the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified after the Turkish intervention in July 1974 that followed a Greek junta-supported coup attempt gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which is recognized only by Turkey
name: Nicosia (Lefkosia)
geographic coordinates: 35 10 N, 33 22 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish Cypriot area's administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and small parts of Lefkosia (Nicosia) and Larnaca
16 August 1960 (from UK); note - Turkish Cypriots proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 and independence in 1983, but these proclamations are only recognized by Turkey
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 October (1960); note - Turkish Cypriots celebrate 15 November (1983) as Independence Day
16 August 1960; from December 1963, the Turkish Cypriots no longer participated in the government; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and for better relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently since the mid-1960s; in 1975, following the 1974 Turkish intervention, Turkish Cypriots created their own constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus," which became the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" when the Turkish Cypriots declared their independence in 1983; a new constitution for the "TRNC" passed by referendum on 5 May 1985
Legal system:
based on common law, with civil law modifications; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Tassos PAPADOPOULOS (since 1 March 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
head of government: President Tassos PAPADOPOULOS (since 1 March 2003); note - post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960 constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and vice president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 16 February 2003 (next to be held February 2008)
election results: Tassos PAPADOPOULOS elected president; percent of vote - Tassos PAPADOPOULOS 51.5%, Glafkos KLIRIDIS 38.8%, Alekos MARKIDIS 6.6%
note: Mehmet Ali TALAT became "president" of north Cyprus, 24 April 2005, after "presidential" elections on 17 April 2005; results - Mehmet Ali TALAT 55.6%, Dervis EROGLU 22.7%; Ferdi Sabit SOYER is "prime minister"; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in north Cyprus, appointed by the "prime minister"
Legislative branch:
unicameral - Republic of Cyprus: House of Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to the Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots; note - only those assigned to Greek Cypriots are filled; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); north Cyprus: Assembly of the Republic or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Republic of Cyprus: last held 21 May 2006 (next to be held 2011); north Cyprus: last held 14 December 2003 (next to be held in 2008)
election results: Republic of Cyprus: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - AKEL 31.13%, DISY 30.34%, DIKO 17.92%, KISOS 6.51%, EDEK 8.91%, EURO.KO 5.75%, Greens 1.95%; seats by party - AKEL (Communist) 18, DISY 18, DIKO 11, KISOS 4, EDEK 4, EURO.KO 4, Greens 1; north Cyprus: Assembly of the Republic - percent of vote by party - CTP 35.8%, UBP 32.3%, Peace and Democratic Movement 13.4%, DP 12.3%; seats by party - CTP 19, UBP 18, Peace and Democratic Movement 6, DP 7; note - north Cyprus seats by party since September 2006 - CTP 25, OP 3, UBP 13, DP 6, BDH 1, independents 2
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (judges are appointed jointly by the president and vice president)
note: there is also a Supreme Court in north Cyprus
Political parties and leaders:
Republic of Cyprus: Democratic Party or DIKO [Marios KAROYIAN]; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos ANASTASIADHIS]; European Democracy or EURO.DI [Prodromos PRODROMOU] (evolved from For Europe which merged with New Horizons); European Party or EURO.KO [Demetris SYLLOURIS]; Fighting Democratic Movement or ADIK [Dinos MIKHAILIDIS]; Green Party of Cyprus [George PERDIKIS]; Movement for Social Democrats or EDEK [Yannakis OMIROU]; Political Movement of Hunters [Michalis PAFITANIS]; Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS]; United Democrats or EDI [Michalis PAPAPETROU]; north Cyprus: Communal Liberation Party or TKP [Huseyin ANGOLEMLI]; Cyprus Socialist Party or KSP [Kazim ONGEN]; Democratic Party or DP [Serder DENKTASH]; Freedom and Reform Party or OP [Turgay AVCI]; National Unity Party or UBP [Tahsin ERTUGRULOGLU]; Nationalist Justice Party or MAP [Ata TEPE]; New Party or YP [Huseyin TURAN]; Our Party or BP [Okyay SADIKOGLU]; Patriotic Unity Movement or YBH [Oguz OZEN]; Peace and Democratic Movement or BDH [Mustafa AKINCI]; Renewal Progress Party or YAP [Ertugrul HASIPOGLU]; Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Ferdi Sabit SOYER]; Solution and EU Party or CAP [Ali EREL]; United Cyprus Party or BKP [Isset IZCAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andreas KAKOURIS
chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772, 462-0873
FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710
consulate(s) general: New York
note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot community in the US is Osman ERTUG; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone [1] (202) 887-6198
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald L. SCHLICHER
embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, 2407 Engomi, Nicosia
mailing address: P. O. Box 24536, 1385 Nicosia
telephone: [357] (22) 393939
FAX: [357] (22) 780944
Flag description:
white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities
note: the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a white field
Economy Cyprus
Economy - overview:
The Republic of Cyprus has a market economy dominated by the service sector, which accounts for 76% of GDP. Tourism and financial services are the most important sectors; erratic growth rates over the past decade reflect the economy's reliance on tourism, which often fluctuates with political instability in the region and economic conditions in Western Europe. Nevertheless, the economy grew a healthy 3.7% per year in 2004 and 2005, well above the EU average. Cyprus joined the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM2) in May 2005. The government has initiated an aggressive austerity program, which has cut the budget deficit to below 3% but continued fiscal discipline is necessary if Cyprus is to meet its goal of adopting the euro on 1 January 2008. As in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots, water shortages are a perennial problem; a few desalination plants are now on line. After 10 years of drought, the country received substantial rainfall from 2001-03 alleviating immediate concerns. The Turkish Cypriot economy has roughly one-third of the per capita GDP of the south, and economic growth tends to be volatile, given north Cyprus's relative isolation, bloated public sector, reliance on the Turkish lira, and small market size. The Turkish Cypriot economy grew 15.4% in 2004, fueled by growth in the construction and education sectors, as well as increased employment of Turkish Cypriots in the Republic of Cyprus. The Turkish Cypriots are heavily dependent on transfers from the Turkish Government. Under the 2003-06 economic protocol, Ankara planned to provide around $700 million to the "TRNC." Agriculture and services, together, employ more than half of the work force.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Republic of Cyprus: $17.79 billion; north Cyprus: $4.54 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Republic of Cyprus: $16.35 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Republic of Cyprus: 3.7%; north Cyprus: 10.6% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Republic of Cyprus: $22,700 (2005 est.); north Cyprus: $7,135 (2004 est.) (2006 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Republic of Cyprus: agriculture 3.7%; industry 19.6%; services 76.8% (2005 est.)
north Cyprus: agriculture 10.6%; industry 20.5%; services 68.9% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Republic of Cyprus: 380,000, north Cyprus: 95,025 (2006 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Republic of Cyprus: agriculture 7.4%, industry 38.2%, services 54.4% (2004 est.)
north Cyprus: agriculture 14.5%, industry 29%, services 56.5% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Republic of Cyprus: 5.5% (2005 est.); north Cyprus: 5.6% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Republic of Cyprus: 2.8% (2005 est.); north Cyprus: 9.1% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Republic of Cyprus: 21.2% of GDP (2006 est.)
revenues: Republic of Cyprus - $7.395 billion (2005 est.)
expenditures: Republic of Cyprus - $7.695 billion (2005 est.)
revenues: $685.7 million; north Cyprus - $231.3 million (2003 est.)
expenditures: north Cyprus - $432.8 million (2003 est.)
Public debt:
Republic of Cyprus: 68.4% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products:
citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, vegetables; poultry, pork, lamb; dairy, cheese
tourism, food and beverage processing, cement and gypsum production, ship repair and refurbishment, textiles, light chemicals, metal products, wood, paper, stone, and clay products
Industrial production growth rate:
Republic of Cyprus: 2.4% (2005 est.); north Cyprus: -0.3% (2002 est.) (2006 est.)
Electricity - production:
Republic of Cyprus: 3.926 billion kWh; north Cyprus: NA kWh (2004)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
Republic of Cyprus: 3.651 billion kWh (2004); north Cyprus: NA kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
Republic of Cyprus: 300 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Republic of Cyprus: 53,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
NA bbl/day (2001)
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance:
Republic of Cyprus: $-1.051 billion (2006 est.)
Republic of Cyprus: $1.34 billion f.o.b.; north Cyprus: $69 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Republic of Cyprus: citrus, potatoes, pharmaceuticals, cement, clothing and cigarettes; north Cyprus: citrus, potatoes, textiles
Exports - partners:
France 18.8%, UK 18.1%, Greece 13%, Germany 6% (2005)
Republic of Cyprus: $5.8 billion f.o.b.; north Cyprus: $415.2 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Republic of Cyprus: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, intermediate goods, machinery, transport equipment; north Cyprus: vehicles, fuel, cigarettes, food, minerals, chemicals, machinery
Imports - partners:
Greece 17.3%, Italy 10.3%, UK 9%, Germany 8.4%, Israel 7.1% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Republic of Cyprus: $4.613 billion; north Cyprus $NA (2006 est.)
Debt - external:
Republic of Cyprus: $12.63 billion; north Cyprus: $NA (2006 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Republic of Cyprus - $NA; north Cyprus - $700 million from Turkey in grants and loans, which are usually forgiven (2003-06)
Currency (code):
Republic of Cyprus: Cypriot pound (CYP); Turkish Cypriot area: Turkish New lira (YTL)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Cypriot pounds per US dollar - 0.46019 (2006), 0.4641 (2005), 0.4686 (2004), 0.5174 (2003), 0.6107 (2002), Turkish lira per US dollar - 1.44514 (2006), 1.3436 (2005), 1.426 million (2004), 1.501 million (2003), 1.507 million (2002), 1.226 million (2001)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Cyprus
Telephones - main lines in use:
Republic of Cyprus: 420,000 (2005); north Cyprus: 86,228 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Republic of Cyprus: 718,800 (2005); north Cyprus: 143,178 (2002)
Telephone system:
general assessment: excellent in both Republic of Cyprus and north Cyprus areas
domestic: open-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay
international: country code - 357 (area administered by Turkish Cypriots uses the country code of Turkey - 90); tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat
Radio broadcast stations:
Republic of Cyprus: AM 5, FM 76, shortwave 0
north Cyprus: AM 1, FM 20, shortwave 1 (2004)
Greek Cypriot area: 310,000 (1997); Turkish Cypriot area: 56,450 (1994)
Television broadcast stations:
Republic of Cyprus: 8
north Cyprus: 2 (plus 4 relay) (2004)
Greek Cypriot area: 248,000 (1997); Turkish Cypriot area: 52,300 (1994)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
67,589 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
6 (2000)
Internet users:
298,000 (2005)
Transportation Cyprus
16 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2006)
10 (2006)
total: 14,496 km (Republic of Cyprus: 12,146 km; north Cyprus: 2,350 km)
paved: Republic of Cyprus: 7,845 km (including 276 km of expressways); north Cyprus: 1,370 km
unpaved: Republic of Cyprus: 4,301 km; north Cyprus: 980 km (2005/1996 est.)
Merchant marine:
total: 884 ships (1000 GRT or over) 19,477,944 GRT/31,157,473 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 354, cargo 210, chemical tanker 44, container 145, liquefied gas 8, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 23, petroleum tanker 64, refrigerated cargo 15, roll on/roll off 9, vehicle carrier 5
foreign-owned: 777 (Belgium 1, Canada 2, China 11, Croatia 2, Cuba 2, Denmark 1, Estonia 6, Germany 214, Greece 337, Greenland 1, Hong Kong 1, India 5, Iran 2, Ireland 3, Israel 3, Italy 2, Japan 17, South Korea 1, Latvia 4, Netherlands 18, Norway 16, Philippines 1, Poland 20, Portugal 2, Russia 53, Singapore 1, Slovakia 1, Slovenia 4, Spain 7, Sweden 3, Switzerland 4, Syria 3, UAE 11, UK 6, Ukraine 4, US 7, unknown 1)
registered in other countries: 87 (Bahamas 13, Belize 2, Cambodia 12, Georgia 1, Gibraltar 1, Greece 1, Isle of Man 1, Liberia 3, Malta 15, Marshall Islands 15, Norway 2, Panama 14, Portugal 1, Russia 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 1, Turkey 2) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos
Military Cyprus
Military branches:
Republic of Cyprus: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; includes air and naval elements); north Cyprus: Turkish Cypriot Security Force (GKK)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Greek Cyriot National Guard (GCNG):
males age 18-49: 184,352
females age 18-49: 175,567 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Greek Cyriot National Guard (GCNG):
males age 18-49: 150,750
females age 18-49: 144,344 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Greek Cyriot National Guard (GCNG):
males age 18-49: 6,578
females age 18-49: 6,200 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$384 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
3.8% (FY02)
Transnational Issues Cyprus
Disputes - international:
hostilities in 1974 divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities, the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community (north Cyprus); the 1,000-strong UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) has served in Cyprus since 1964 and maintains the buffer zone between north and south; March 2003 reunification talks failed, but Turkish-Cypriots later opened their borders to temporary visits by Greek Cypriots; on 24 April 2004, the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities voted in simultaneous and parallel referenda on whether to approve the UN-brokered Annan Plan that would have ended the 30-year division of the island by establishing a new "United Cyprus Republic," a majority of Greek Cypriots voted "no"; on 1 May 2004, Cyprus entered the European Union still divided, with the EU's body of legislation and standards (acquis communitaire) suspended in the north
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 265,000 (both Turkish and Greek Cypriots; many displaced for over 30 years) (2005)
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Cyprus is primarily a destination country for a large number of women trafficked from Eastern and Central Europe, the Philippines, and the Dominican Republic for the purpose of sexual exploitation; traffickers continued to fraudulently recruit victims for work as dancers in cabarets and nightclubs on short-term "artiste" visas, for work in pubs and bars on employment visas, or for illegal work on tourist or student visas; there were credible reports of female domestic workers from India, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines forced to work excessively long hours and denied proper compensation
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Cyprus does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and failed to show evidence of increasing efforts to address its serious trafficking for sexual exploitation problem; however, it is making significant efforts to do so
Illicit drugs:
minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey; some cocaine transits as well; despite a strengthening of anti-money-laundering legislation, remains vulnerable to money laundering; reporting of suspicious transactions in offshore sector remains weak

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007