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Flag of Bermuda
Map of Bermuda
Introduction Bermuda
Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be important to the island's economy, although international business has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. Although a referendum on independence from the UK was soundly defeated in 1995, the present government has reopened debate on the issue.
Geography Bermuda
North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of South Carolina (US)
Geographic coordinates:
32 20 N, 64 45 W
Map references:
North America
total: 53.3 sq km
land: 53.3 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
about one-third the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
103 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
low hills separated by fertile depressions
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Town Hill 76 m
Natural resources:
limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 80% (55% developed, 45% rural/open space) (2005)
Irrigated land:
Natural hazards:
hurricanes (June to November)
Environment - current issues:
sustainable development
Geography - note:
consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995
People Bermuda
65,773 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 18.6% (male 6,146/female 6,098)
15-64 years: 69.2% (male 22,562/female 22,954)
65 years and over: 12.2% (male 3,479/female 4,534) (2006 est.)
Median age:
total: 40.2 years
male: 39.3 years
female: 41 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.61% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
11.4 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
7.74 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 8.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.85 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.96 years
male: 75.85 years
female: 80.1 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.89 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.297% (2005)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
163 (2005)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
392 (2005)
noun: Bermudian(s)
adjective: Bermudian
Ethnic groups:
black 54.8%, white 34.1%, mixed 6.4%, other races 4.3%, unspecified 0.4% (2000 census)
Anglican 23%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist Episcopal 11%, other Protestant 18%, other 12%, unaffiliated 6%, unspecified 1%, none 14% (2000 census)
English (official), Portuguese
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 99% (2005 est.)
Government Bermuda
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bermuda
former: Somers Islands
Dependency status:
overseas territory of the UK
Government type:
parliamentary; self-governing territory
name: Hamilton
geographic coordinates: 32 17 N, 64 46 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's, Southampton, Warwick
none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Bermuda Day, 24 May
8 June 1968; amended 1989 and 2003
Legal system:
English law
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Sir John VEREKER (since 11 April 2002)
head of government: Premier Ewart BROWN (since 30 October 2006); Deputy Premier Paula COX
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed premier by the governor
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body appointed by the governor, the premier, and the opposition) and the House of Assembly (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve up to five-year terms)
elections: last general election held 24 July 2003 (next to be held not later than July 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 51.7%, UBP 48%; seats by party - PLP 22, UBP 14
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts
Political parties and leaders:
Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Ewart BROWN]; United Bermuda Party or UBP [Wayne FURBERT]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Bermuda Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Union or BPSU [Ed BALL]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]
International organization participation:
Caricom (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ITUC, UPU, WCO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General Gregory W. SLAYTON
consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3
mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, US Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300
telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, [1] (441) 296-9233
Flag description:
red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag
Economy Bermuda
Economy - overview:
Bermuda enjoys the highest per capita income in the world, more than 50% higher than that of the US. Its economy is primarily based on providing financial services for international business and luxury facilities for tourists. A number of reinsurance companies relocated to the island following 11 September 2001 and again after Hurricane Katrina, contributing to the expansion of an already robust international business sector. Bermuda's tourism industry - which derives over 80% of its visitors from the US - continues to struggle but remains the island's number two industry. Most capital equipment and food must be imported. Bermuda's industrial sector is small, although construction continues to be important; the average cost of a house in June 2003 had risen to $976,000. Agriculture is limited with only 20% of the land being arable.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$4.5 billion (2004 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
GDP - real growth rate:
4.6% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$69,900 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 10%
services: 89% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
38,360 (2004)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture and fishing 3%, laborers 3%, clerical 19%, professional and technical 17%, administrative and managerial 15%, sales 19%, services 19% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2.1% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
19% (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.8% (November 2005)
revenues: $738 million
expenditures: $665 million (FY04/05)
Agriculture - products:
bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products, honey
international business, tourism, light manufacturing
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:
682.5 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
616.7 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - consumption:
4,658 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports:
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
0 cu m (2004 est.)
$1.469 billion (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
reexports of pharmaceuticals
Exports - partners:
France 65.9%, Spain 11.8%, US 4.5% (2005)
$982 million (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
clothing, fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, chemicals, food and live animals
Imports - partners:
France 38.9%, South Korea 20.9%, US 15.5% (2005)
Debt - external:
$160 million (FY99/00)
Economic aid - recipient:
Currency (code):
Bermudian dollar (BMD)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Bermudian dollar per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
Communications Bermuda
Telephones - main lines in use:
56,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
49,000 (2004)
Telephone system:
general assessment: good
domestic: fully automatic digital telephone system; fiber optic trunk lines
international: country code - 1-441; submarine cables - 3 (fiber optic); satellite earth stations - 3 (2005)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (2005)
82,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
3 (2005)
66,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
8,114 (2006)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
20 (2000)
Internet users:
39,000 (2005)
Transportation Bermuda
1 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2006)
total: 447 km
paved: 447 km
note: public roads - 225 km; private roads - 222 km (2002)
Merchant marine:
total: 132 ships (1000 GRT or over) 7,873,728 GRT/8,688,692 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 25, cargo 1, container 24, liquefied gas 23, passenger 19, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 16, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 5
foreign-owned: 116 (Australia 3, Belgium 4, France 1, Germany 21, Greece 2, Hong Kong 10, Indonesia 1, Ireland 1, Israel 3, Monaco 2, Nigeria 11, Norway 5, Sweden 14, Switzerland 2, UK 9, US 27)
registered in other countries: 6 (Liberia 1, Marshall Islands 4, Panama 1) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Hamilton, Saint George
Military Bermuda
Military branches:
no regular military forces
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 15,151 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 12,165 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males age 18-49: 408 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$4.03 million (2001)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
0.11% (FY00/01)
Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK
Transnational Issues Bermuda
Disputes - international:

This page was last updated on 18 January, 2007